5,963 research outputs found

    Influence of Islam on smoking among Muslims

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    Smoking prevalence is generally high among Muslims. An awareness of their religious beliefs and rulings might increase the effectiveness of antismoking campaign

    Discrete Symmetries (C,P,T) in Noncommutative Field Theories

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    In this paper we study the invariance of the noncmmutative gauge theories under C, P and T transformations. For the noncommutative space (when only the spatial part of θ\theta is non-zero) we show that NCQED is Parity invariant. In addition, we show that under charge conjugation the theory on noncommutative Rθ4R^4_{\theta} is transformed to the theory on Rθ4R^4_{-\theta}, so NCQED is a CP violating theory. The theory remains invariant under time reversal if, together with proper changes in fields, we also change θ\theta by θ-\theta. Hence altogether NCQED is CPT invariant. Moreover we show that the CPT invariance holds for general noncommutative space-time.Comment: Revtex File, 4 pages, no figures, minor changes from previous verion. To appear in Phys. Rev. Let

    We are bitter, but we are better off: Case study of the implementation of an electronic health record system into a mental health hospital in England

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    In contrast to the acute hospital sector, there have been relatively few implementations of integrated electronic health record (EHR) systems into specialist mental health settings. The National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) in England was the most expensive IT-based transformation of public services ever undertaken, which aimed amongst other things, to implement integrated EHR systems into mental health hospitals. This paper describes the arrival, the process of implementation, stakeholders' experiences and the local consequences of the implementation of an EHR system into a mental health hospital

    Chaos and isospin symmetry breaking in rotational nuclei

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    For nuclei with N = Z, the isospin degree of freedom is important and, for deformed systems, rotational bands of different isospin may be expected at low excitation energies. We have investigated, in a simple model space, the influence of the isospin-breaking Coulomb interaction on the degree of chaoticity of these rotational bands. The statistical measures used rely on an analysis of level-spacing distributions, which are extremely difficult to measure experimentally. We show, however, that the overlap intergrals between states of similar frequency reflect well the degree of chaoticity. This quantity is closely related to the experimentally more accessible gamma-decay ``spreading width''.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, Elsevie

    Predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in women in an obesity programme using meal replacements

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    Objective: To explore predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in patients participating in a weight management programme using meal replacements (MR).Design: One hundred and fifty healthy obese women, age 48.5 years (s.d. = 8.3); weight, 97.6 kg (13.4); body mass index (BMI) 36.5 (3.7), participated in a longitudinal study with a 16-week acute weight loss phase (Phase 1) followed by 1 year of a trial of weight-loss maintenance (Phase 2). Energy intake during Phase 1 totaled 900 kcal (3.7 MJ) a day from a diet including two MR. Energy intake during Phase 2 consisted of either MR or a low-fat diet with a calculated energy deficit of 600 kcal/day (2.5 MJ).Methods: Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body composition assessed by air plethysmography (Bodpod). Glucose and insulin were measured by standard immunoassays and insulin sensitivity assessed by homeostatic model assessment.Results: At the end of 16 weeks, 114 subjects (76%) completed Phase 1 and achieved a mean weight loss of 8.95 kg (3.38). Adherence to Phase 1 was predicted by weight loss over the first 2 weeks (p < 0.001). Weight loss during Phase 1 was predicted by initial weight and initial systolic blood pressure. Adherence to Phase 2 was not predicted by physiological measures. Weight loss maintenance in Phase 2 (not gaining more than 3% of the weight at start of phase 2) was predicted by cholesterol and triglyceride measured at the start of Phase 2 but otherwise was not predicted by the physiological measures. Initial insulin sensitivity did not predict weight loss in either phase.Conclusion: Participants whose weight loss over the first 2 weeks falls in the bottom third may need additional intervention if they are to continue in this type of programme. A battery of physiological measures at entry to a MR weight loss and maintenance programme explains only a very small proportion of the variation in weight loss

    Methodological reflections on the evaluation of the implementation and adoption of national electronic health record systems

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    Copyright @ 2012, International Journal of Integrated Care (IJIC). This work is licensed under a (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0) Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.Introduction/purpose of presentation: Far-reaching policy commitments to information technology-centered transformations of healthcare systems have now been made in many countries. There is as yet little empirical evidence to justify such decisions, hence the need for rigorous independent evaluation of current implementation efforts. Such evaluations however pose a number of important challenges. This presentation has been designed as a part of a Panel based on our experience of evaluating the National Health Service’s (NHS) implementation of electronic health records (EHR) systems in hospitals throughout England. We discuss the methodological challenges encountered in planning and undertaking an evaluation of a program of this scale and reflect on why and how we adapted our evaluation approach—both conceptually and methodologically—in response to these challenges. Study design/population studied: Critical reflections on a multi-disciplinary and multi-facet independent evaluation of a national program to implement electronic health record systems into 12 ‘early wave’ NHS hospitals in England. Findings: Our initial plan was to employ a mixed methods longitudinal ‘before-during-after’ study design. We however found this unsustainable in the light of fluxes in policy, contractual issues and over-optimistic schedules for EHR deployments. More importantly, this research design failed adequately to address the core of multi-faceted evolving EHRs as understood by key stakeholders and as worked out in their distinct work settings. Thus conventional outcomes-centric evaluations may not easily scale-up when evaluating transformational programs and may indeed prove misleading. New assumptions concerning the implementation process of EHR need to be developed that recognize the constantly changing milieu of policy, product, projects and professions that are inherent to such national implementations. The approaches we subsequently developed substitute the positivist view that EHR initiatives are self-evident and self-contained interventions, which are amenable to traditional quantitative evaluations, to one that focuses on how they are understood by various stakeholders and made to work in specific contexts. These assumptions recast the role of evaluation towards an approach that explores and interprets processes of socio-technical change that surround EHR implementation and adoption as seen by multiple stakeholders. Conclusions and policy implications: There is likely to be an increase in politically-driven national programs of reform of healthcare based on information and communication technologies. Programs on such a scale are inherently complex with extended temporalities and extensive and dynamic sets of stakeholders. They are, in short, different and pose new evaluation challenges that previously formulated evaluation methods for health information systems cannot easily address. This calls for methodological innovation amongst research teams and their supporting bodies. We argue that evaluation of such system-wide transformation programs are likely to demand both breadth and depth of experience within a multidisciplinary research team, constant questioning of what is and what can be evaluated and how, and a particular way of working that emphasizes continuous dialogue and reflexivity. Making this transition is essential to enable evaluations that can usefully inform policy-making. Health policy experts urgently need to reassess the evaluation strategies they employ as they come to address national policies for system-wide transformation based on new electronic health infrastructures

    Determining the Effectiveness of Wildlife Exits Along a South Texas Highway

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    Movement is a key component of survival for many species, often causing wildlife to cross heavily trafficked highways, resulting in road mortalities. In Cameron County, Texas, ten wildlife exits (WE) were installed along State Highway 100 in conjunction with existing mitigation structures to provide species such as the U.S. endangered ocelot with a safe option to escape the right-of-way (ROW). The objectives of this study were to determine effectiveness and species usage, as well as to estimate the percentage of wildlife that crossed back into the habitat via a WE. Results of this study showed that all six target species used a WE to return to the habitat. Approximately 43% of bobcats observed, a surrogate species for the ocelot, used a WE to escape the ROW. Information on the effectiveness of these novel structures will be useful in the development of future WE to optimize placement and design