73 research outputs found

    Molecular Detection of Anaplasma bovis in Cattle from Central Part of Iran

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    Anaplasma bovis is a leukocytotropic agent of bovine anaplasmosis and there is no available information about molecular study on this agent in cattle of Iran. In this study a total 150 cattle blood samples were collected from central part of Iran. The presence of A. bovis examined using light microscopic detection and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene. Of the 150 cattle, 4 (2.66 %) was positive for A. bovis by nested-PCR. These data is the first A. bovis DNA presence in cattle from central part of Iran

    Evidence That beta 1-Integrin Is Required for the Anti-Viability and Anti-Proliferative Effect of Resveratrol in CRC Cells

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    The beta 1-integrin receptor is broadly expressed on tumor and other cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and is an unfavorable prognostic factor for cancers. Nature-derived resveratrol has preventive and apoptotic effects on tumors, but whether resveratrol can exert its suppressive actions on TME-induced tumorigenesis through beta 1-integrin on the surface of CRC cells is still unknown. HCT116 or SW480 cells were exposed to inhibitory antibodies against beta 1-integrin, bacitracin (selective beta 1-integrin inhibitor), integrin-binding RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide, and/or resveratrol. We evaluated the anti-tumor actions and signaling impacts of resveratrol in colorectal cancer (CRC)-TME. We found that resveratrol completely altered the beta 1-integrin distribution pattern and expression on the surface of CRC cells in TME. Moreover, resveratrol down-regulated CRC cell proliferation, colony formation, viability, and up-regulated apoptosis in a concentration-dependent way. These actions of resveratrol were antagonized mainly by inhibitory antibodies against beta 1-integrin but not beta 5-integrin, and by an integrin-binding RGD peptide but not by RGE peptide, and by bacitracin in TME. Similarly, resveratrol-blocked TME-induced p65-NF-kB and its promoted gene markers linked to proliferation (cyclin D1), invasion (focal adhesion kinase, FAK), or apoptosis (caspase-3), were largely abrogated by anti-beta 1-integrin or RGD peptide, suggesting that beta 1-integrin is a potential transmission pathway for resveratrol/integrin down-stream signaling in CRC cells. The current results highlight, for the first time, the important gateway role of beta 1-integrins as signal carriers for resveratrol on the surfaces of HCT116 and SW480 cells, and their functional cooperation for the modulatory effects of resveratrol on TME-promoted tumorigenesis

    Curcumin Chemosensitizes 5-Fluorouracil Resistant MMR-Deficient Human Colon Cancer Cells in High Density Cultures

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    Objective Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50–60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin) in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. Methods High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3) and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R) were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. Results Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. Conclusion Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population

    Resveratrol induces apoptosis by modulating the reciprocal crosstalk between p53 and Sirt-1 in the CRC tumor microenvironment

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    Introduction: P53 represents a key player in apoptosis-induction in cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) that ranks third worldwide in cancer prevalence as well as mortality statistics. Although a pro-apoptotic effect of resveratrol has been repeatedly proven in CRC cells, its pathway mechanisms are not completely understood, as there are controversial statements in the literature regarding its activation or inhibition of the counteracting proteins Sirt-1 and p53. Methods: CRC cells as wild-type (HCT-116 WT) or p53-deficient (HCT-116 p53-/-) were cultured using multicellular tumor microenvironment (TME) cultures containing T-lymphocytes and fibroblasts to elucidate the role of p53/Sirt-1 modulation in resveratrol’s concentration-dependent, pro-apoptotic, and thus anti-cancer effects. Results: Resveratrol dose-dependently inhibited viability, proliferation, plasticity as well as migration, and induced apoptosis in HCT-116 WT more effectively than in HCT-116 p53-/- cells. Moreover, resveratrol stimulated Sirt-1 expression when administered at low concentrations (10µM) to CRC-TME. In parallel, similar to the knockdown of Sirt-1 at the mRNA level, treatment with high-concentration resveratrol boosted the acetylation of p53, the expression of p21, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, and ultimately induced apoptosis in CRC WT but not in CRC p53-/- cells. Notably, increasing concentrations of resveratrol were found to promote hyperacetylation of p53 and FOXO3a as post-translational substrates of Sirt-1, indicating a negative regulatory loop between Sirt-1 and p53. Discussion: These results demonstrate for the first time, a negative reciprocal crosstalk between the regulatory circuits of p53 and Sirt-1, consequently, apoptosis induction by higher resveratrol concentrations in CRC-TME

    Resveratrol mediated modulation of Sirt-1/Runx2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: potential role of Runx2 deacetylation.

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    Osteogenic repair in response to bone injury is characterized by activation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts. This study determined whether activation of Sirt-1 (a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase) by the phytoestrogen resveratrol affects osteogenic differentiation. Monolayer and high-density cultures of MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells were treated with an osteogenic induction medium with/without the Sirt-1 inhibitor nicotinamide or/and resveratrol in a concentration dependent manner. MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells differentiated to osteoblasts when exposed to osteogenic-induction medium. The osteogenic response was blocked by nicotinamide, resulting in adipogenic differentiation and expression of the adipose transcription regulator PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor). However, in nicotinamide-treated cultures, pre-treatment with resveratrol significantly enhanced osteogenesis by increasing expression of Runx2 (bone specific transcription factor) and decreasing expression of PPAR-γ. Activation of Sirt-1 by resveratrol in MSCs increased its binding to PPAR-γ and repressed PPAR-γ activity by involving its cofactor NCoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). The modulatory effects of resveratrol on nicotinamide-induced expression of PPAR-γ and its cofactor NCoR were found to be mediated, at least in part, by Sirt-1/Runx2 association and deacetylation of Runx2. Finally, knockdown of Sirt-1 by using antisense oligonucleotides downregulated the expression of Sirt-1 protein and abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol, namely nicotinamide-induced Sirt-1 suppression and Runx2 acetylation, suggesting that the acetylated content of Runx2 is related to downregulated Sirt-1 expression. These data support a critical role for Runx2 acetylation/deacetylation during osteogenic differentiation in MSCs in vitro. (242 words in abstract)

    β1-Integrin plays a major role in resveratrol-mediated anti-invasion effects in the CRC microenvironment

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    Background: Tumor microenvironment (TME) is one of the most important factors in tumor aggressiveness, with an active exchange between tumor and other TME-associated cells that promotes metastasis. The tumor-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells has been frequently reported. However, whether resveratrol can specifically suppress TME-induced CRC invasion via β1-integrin receptors has not been fully elucidated yet. Methods: Two CRC cell lines (HCT116, RKO) were cultured in multicellular, pro-inflammatory 3D-alginate TME cultures (containing fibroblasts, T-lymphocytes) to investigate the role of β1-integrin receptors in the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effect of resveratrol by antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). Results: Our results show that resveratrol dose-dependently suppressed the migration-promoting adhesion adapter protein paxillin and simultaneously enhanced the expression of E-cadherin associated with the phenotype change of CRC cells, and their invasion. Moreover, resveratrol blocked TME-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65-NF-κB, which was associated with changes in the expression pattern of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-related biomarkers (slug, vimentin, E-cadherin), metastasis-related factors (CXCR4, MMP-9, FAK), and apoptosis (caspase-3). Finally, transient transfection of β1-integrin, in contrast to knockdown of NF-κB, abrogated most anti-invasive, anti-metastatic effects as well as downstream signaling of resveratrol, resulting in a concomitant increase in CRC cell invasion, indicating a central role of β1-integrin receptors in the anti-invasive function of resveratrol. Conclusion: These results demonstrate for the first time that silencing β1-integrins may suppress, at least in part the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on invasion and migration of CRC cells, underscoring the crucial homeostatic role of β1-integrin receptors

    Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells

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    Sirt1 is a NAD(+)-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear;which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-kappa B, NF-kappa B phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-kappa B-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-kappa B, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-kappa B phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-kappa B-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-kappa B activation

    Curcumin attenuates environment-derived osteoarthritis by Sox9/NF-kB signaling axis

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    Inflammation has a fundamental impact on the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA), a common form of degenerative arthritis. It has previously been established that curcumin, a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), has anti-inflammatory properties. This research evaluates the potentials of curcumin on the pathophysiology of OA in vitro. To explore the anti-inflammatory efficacy of curcumin in an inflamed joint, an osteoarthritic environment (OA-EN) model consisting of fibroblasts, T-lymphocytes, 3D-chondrocytes is constructed and co-incubated with TNF-α, antisense oligonucleotides targeting NF-kB (ASO-NF-kB), or an IkB-kinase (IKK) inhibitor (BMS-345541). Our results show that OA-EN, similar to TNF-α, suppresses chondrocyte viability, which is accompanied by a significant decrease in cartilage-specific proteins (collagen II, CSPG, Sox9) and an increase in NF-kB-driven gene proteins participating in inflammation, apoptosis, and breakdown (NF-kB, MMP-9, Cox-2, Caspase-3). Conversely, similar to knockdown of NF-kB at the mRNA level or at the IKK level, curcumin suppresses NF-kB activation, NF-kB-promotes gene proteins derived from the OA-EN, and stimulates collagen II, CSPG, and Sox9 expression. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assay shows that curcumin reduces OA-EN-mediated inflammation and chondrocyte apoptosis, with concomitant chondroprotective effects, due to modulation of Sox-9/NF-kB signaling axis. Finally, curcumin selectively hinders the interaction of p-NF-kB-p65 directly with DNA—this association is disrupted through DTT. These results suggest that curcumin suppresses inflammation in OA-EN via modulating NF-kB-Sox9 coupling and is essential for maintaining homeostasis in OA by balancing chondrocyte survival and inflammatory responses. This may contribute to the alternative treatment of OA with respect to the efficacy of curcumin

    Curcumin Suppresses Crosstalk between Colon Cancer Stem Cells and Stromal Fibroblasts in the Tumor Microenvironment: Potential Role of EMT

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    Objective: Interaction of stromal and tumor cells plays a dynamic role in initiating and enhancing carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the crosstalk between colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with stromal fibroblasts and the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), especially on cancer stem cell (CSC) survival in a 3D-co-culture model that mimics in vivo tumor microenvironment. Methods: Colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and MRC-5 fibroblasts were co-cultured in a monolayer or high density tumor microenvironment model in vitro with/without curcumin and/or 5-FU. Results: Monolayer tumor microenvironment co-cultures supported intensive crosstalk between cancer cells and fibroblasts and enhanced up-regulation of metastatic active adhesion molecules (beta 1-integrin, ICAM-1), transforming growth factor-beta signaling molecules (TGF-beta 3, p-Smad2), proliferation associated proteins (cyclin D1, Ki-67) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factor (vimentin) in HCT116 compared with tumor mono-cultures. High density tumor microenvironment co-cultures synergistically increased tumor-promoting factors (NF-kappa B, MMP-13), TGF-beta 3, favored CSC survival (characterized by up-regulation of CD133, CD44, ALDH1) and EMT-factors (increased vimentin and Slug, decreased E-cadherin) in HCT116 compared with high density HCT116 mono-cultures. Interestingly, this synergistic crosstalk was even more pronounced in the presence of 5-FU, but dramatically decreased in the presence of curcumin, inducing biochemical changes to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET),thereby sensitizing CSCs to 5-FU treatment. Conclusion: Enrichment of CSCs, remarkable activation of tumor-promoting factors and EMT in high density co-culture highlights that the crosstalk in the tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in tumor development and progression, and this interaction appears to be mediated at least in part by TGF-beta and EMT. Modulation of this synergistic crosstalk by curcumin might be a potential therapy for CRC and suppress metastasis

    Resveratrol Regulates Colorectal Cancer Cell Invasion by Modulation of Focal Adhesion Molecules

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    Resveratrol, a safe and multi-targeted agent, has been associated with suppression of survival, proliferation and metastasis of cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms for its anti-cancer activity, particularly on cellular signaling during cancer cell migration still remain poorly understood. We investigated the invasion response of two human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT116 and SW480) to resveratrol and studied the effect of specific pharmacological inhibitors, cytochalasin D (CytD) and focal adhesion kinase-inhibitor (FAK-I) on FAK, cell viability and migration in CRC. We found that resveratrol altered cell phenotype of both CRC cells, reduced cell viability and the results were comparable to FAK-I and CytD. These effects of resveratrol were associated with marked Sirt1 up-regulation, FAK down-regulation, inhibition of focal adhesion and potentiation of effects by combinatorial treatment of resveratrol and inhibitors. Interestingly, inhibition of FAK with FAK-I or treatment with CytD suppressed resveratrol-induced Sirt1 up-regulation and markedly down-regulated FAK expression. Resveratrol or combination treatment with inhibitors significantly activated caspase-3 and potentiated apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol suppressed invasion and colony forming capacity, cell proliferation, beta 1-Integrin expression and activation of FAK of cells in alginate tumor microenvironment, similar to FAK-I or CytD. Finally, we demonstrated that resveratrol, FAK-I or CytD inhibited activation of NF-kappa B, suppressed NF-kappa B-dependent gene end-products involved in invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis;and these effects of resveratrol were potentiated by combination treatment with FAK-I or CytD. Our data illustrated that the anti-invasion effect of resveratrol by inhibition of FAK activity has a potential beneficial role in disease prevention and therapeutic management of CRC
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