2,519 research outputs found

    The molecular basis of malignant catarrhal fever

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    Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (A1HV-1) is gammaherpesvirus that can cause the devastating, fatal disease malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminant hosts but not in its natural host the blue wildebeest. Despite its scientific and economic importance little is known about the underlying molecular basis of MCF pathogenesis. The purpose of this study is to characterise four unique open reading frames (ORFs) of A1HV-1 and examine their contribution to viral pathogenesis. These ORFs are located at the left hand end of the genome, a region known to contain unique transforming and immunomodulatory genes in other gammaherpesviruses, and are predicted to encode two small gene products with no significant homology to any known proteins (ORF A1 and ORF A4), a transcription factor (ORF A2) and a member of the semaphorin family (ORF A3).A 6.2 Kb fragment from A1F1V-1 containing all four ORFs under their natural promoters was cloned into the left hand end region of murine gammaherpesvirus-76 (MHV-76). This allowed for the study of the in vivo contribution to pathogenesis of the gene products in a well characterised small animal model. The recombinant virus showed no difference in its ability to replicate in vitro. Viral titres and lung pathology in infected mice were also comparable although the A1HV-1 gene transcripts were detectable.The ORF A2 gene product expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in mammalian cells consistently showed nuclear localisation, supporting the prediction that this protein functions as a transcription factor. However, attempts to conclusively demonstrate transcriptional activity of this protein were unsuccessful

    Identification of a non-mammalian leptin-like gene:characterization and expression in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)

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    Leptin is well established as a multifunctional cytokine in mammals. However, little is known about the evolution of the leptin gene in other vertebrates. A recently published set of ESTs from the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) contains a sequence sharing 56% nucleotide sequence identity with the human leptin cDNA. To confirm that the EST is naturally expressed in the salamander, a 409 bp cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR of salamander testis and stomach mRNAs. The coding sequence of the cDNA is predicted to encode 169 amino acids, and the mature peptide to consist of 146 residues, as in mammals. Although the overall amino acid identity with mammalian leptins is only 29%, the salamander and mammalian peptides share common structural features. An intron was identified between coding exons providing evidence that the sequence is present in the salamander genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed a rate of molecular divergence consistent with the accepted view of vertebrate evolution. The pattern of tissue expression of the leptin-like cDNA differed between metamorphosed adult individuals of different sizes suggesting possible developmental regulation. Expression was most prominent in the skin and testis, but was also detected in tissues in which leptin mRNA is present in mammals, including the fat body, stomach, and muscle. The characterization of a salamander leptin-like gene provides a basis for understanding how the structure and functions of leptin have altered during the evolution of tetrapod vertebrates

    The Double Club evaluation

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    Review of Program 1: Diagnostics, and Program 3: Genomics and Proteomics

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    Established and supported under the Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centre Progra

    Algorithmic analysis and hardware implementation of a two-wire-interface communication analyser

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    This paper discusses the development of an algorithm for the data analysis to monitor Two-Wire-Interface operation in order to improve the reliability of communication. This algorithm is designed to improve code-efficiency with regards to hardware modelling. An algorithm for the protocol used in the Standard-Mode, Fast-Mode, Fast-Mode Plus and High-Speed-Mode was developed. The proposed algorithm has been derived using the bus protocol specification and implemented in hardware via a hardware description language. The correct operation of the algorithm was proofed by applying the hardware system on a sample communication. The paper also describes the development process of embedded systems and provides information on aspects regarding hardware modelling including a mathematical description of the TWI protocol is provided

    Gated metabolic myocardial imaging, a surrogate for dual perfusion-metabolism imaging by positron emission tomography

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    Acknowledgments The authors are grateful for the help from Dr H Ali and Dr A Dawson. Funding: This study was performed using a research grant from the Aberdeen Royal Hospitals Trust's Endowment Fund, with further support from the Department of Medical Physics at the University of Aberdeen, for which the authors express their gratitude.Peer reviewedPublisher PD
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