1,511 research outputs found

    3D Bioprinted Engineered Living Materials for Continuous Organophosphorus Compound Detoxification

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    Engineered living materials (ELMs) are a rapidly emerging class of materials, demonstrating a wide range of functionalities, including responsive morphing, self-healing, and bio-catalysis. 3D bioprinted hydrogels have been used for the fabrication of high resolution, compartmentalised, and load-bearing structures suitable for hosting microbial metabolism, and accordingly represent an ideal environment for ELMs. The interactions between material frameworks, such as hydrogels, and encapsulated life are now beginning to be investigated.Herein, by 3D printing a hydrogel-encapsulated population of Escherichia coli, a chemically inducible, metabolically active, microbial ELM was fabricated. The material was characterised using a wide range of techniques, including fluorescence microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy. Toxic organophosphorus compound (OPC) detoxifying capabilities were conveyed to the material through inducible expression of Agrobacterium radiobacter phosphotriesterase (arPTE). The reaction diffusion process occurring at the interface of the OPC detoxifying ELM was investigated using continuous fluorescence imaging of Coumaphos hydrolysis.. Principal component analysis was then used to uncover spatial and temporal features within this data, with relevance for future optimisation of catalytic microbial ELMstructures. To further demonstrate the applicability of this 3D printable microbial ELM, the material was incorporated into an entirely 3D printed flow reactor, demonstrating effective, cyclical detoxification of an OPC solution at high flow rate.Looking towards the future of ELM design, a novel, 3D printable, contractile-thermosensitive,double-network hydrogel was used to create thermo-responsive OPC degrading bioreactors, capable of autonomously controlling their performance

    ATP allosterically activates the human 5-lipoxygenase molecular mechanism of arachidonic acid and 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6(E),8(Z),11(Z),14(Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid.

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    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) reacts with arachidonic acid (AA) to first generate 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6(E),8(Z),11(Z),14(Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid [5(S)-HpETE] and then an epoxide from 5(S)-HpETE to form leukotriene A4, from a single polyunsaturated fatty acid. This work investigates the kinetic mechanism of these two processes and the role of ATP in their activation. Specifically, it was determined that epoxidation of 5(S)-HpETE (dehydration of the hydroperoxide) has a rate of substrate capture (Vmax/Km) significantly lower than that of AA hydroperoxidation (oxidation of AA to form the hydroperoxide); however, hyperbolic kinetic parameters for ATP activation indicate a similar activation for AA and 5(S)-HpETE. Solvent isotope effect results for both hydroperoxidation and epoxidation indicate that a specific step in its molecular mechanism is changed, possibly because of a lowering of the dependence of the rate-limiting step on hydrogen atom abstraction and an increase in the dependency on hydrogen bond rearrangement. Therefore, changes in ATP concentration in the cell could affect the production of 5-LOX products, such as leukotrienes and lipoxins, and thus have wide implications for the regulation of cellular inflammation

    The Jefferson Scale of Empathy: a nationwide study of measurement properties, underlying components, latent variable structure, and national norms in medical students.

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    The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) is a broadly used instrument developed to measure empathy in the context of health professions education and patient care. Evidence in support of psychometrics of the JSE has been reported in health professions students and practitioners with the exception of osteopathic medical students. This study was designed to examine measurement properties, underlying components, and latent variable structure of the JSE in a nationwide sample of first-year matriculants at U.S. colleges of osteopathic medicine, and to develop a national norm table for the assessment of JSE scores. A web-based survey was administered at the beginning of the 2017-2018 academic year which included the JSE, a scale to detect good impression responses, and demographic/background information. Usable surveys were received from 6009 students enrolled in 41 college campuses (median response rate = 92%). The JSE mean score and standard deviation for the sample were 116.54 and 10.85, respectively. Item-total score correlations were positive and statistically significant (p \u3c 0.01), and Cronbach α = 0.82. Significant gender differences were observed on the JSE scores in favor of women. Also, significant differences were found on item scores between top and bottom third scorers on the JSE. Three factors of Perspective Taking, Compassionate Care, and Walking in Patient\u27s Shoes emerged in an exploratory factor analysis by using half of the sample. Results of confirmatory factor analysis with another half of the sample confirmed the 3-factor model. We also developed a national norm table which is the first to assess students\u27 JSE scores against national data

    The Open Navigation Surface Project

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    Many hydrographic and oceanographic agencies have moved or are moving towards gridded bathymetric products. However, there is no accepted format to allow these grids to be exchanged while maintaining data and metadata integrity. This paper describes the Open Navigation Surface (ONS) Project, which aims to fill this gap. The ONS Project is an open-source software project designed to provide a freely available, portable source-code library to encapsulate gridded bathymetric surfaces with associated uncertainty values. The data file format is called a Bathymetric Attributed Grid (BAG). The BAG is developed and maintained by the ONS Working Group (ONSWG), and the source code is available via the ONS websit

    \u3ci\u3eTalking Foreign Policy\u3c/i\u3e: Art, Diplomacy and Accountability

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    Talking Foreign Policy is a one-hour radio program, hosted by Case Western Reserve University School of Law Co-Dean Michael Scharf, in which experts discuss the salient foreign policy issues of the day. Dean Scharf created Talking Foreign Policy to break down complex foreign policy topics that are prominent in the day-to-day news cycles yet difficult to understand. This broadcast featured: Paul R. Williams, President and cofounder of the Public International Law & Policy Group, who has advised parties to treaty negotiations around the world Mark Ellis, Executive Director of the International Bar Association Bill Schabas, a professor at Middlesex University and a leading expert in human rights law, who has served as a commissioner on two international investigative commissions Shannon French, Director of the Inamori International Center for Ethics and Excellence and an expert on law and morality Milena Sterio, Associate Dean and Professor of Law at Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, who is also one of the permanent editors of the IntLawGrrls blog and an expert in the field of international la

    The Gas Cylinder, the Motorcycle and the Village Health Team Member: A Proof-of-Concept Study for the Use of the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach to Strengthen the Routine Immunization System in Uganda

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    Although global efforts to support routine immunization (RI) system strengthening have resulted in higher immunization rates, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the proportion of children receiving recommended DPT3 vaccines has stagnated at 80% for the past 3 years (WHO Fact sheet-Immunization coverage 2014, WHO, 2014). Meeting the WHO goal of 90% national DPT3 coverage may require locally based strategies to support conventional approaches. The Africa Routine Immunization Systems Essentials-System Innovation (ARISE-SI) initiative is a proof-of-concept study to assess the application of the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach for generating local solutions to strengthen RI systems and reach those unreached by current efforts in Masaka District, Uganda. The ARISE-SI intervention had three components: health unit (HU) advance preparations, an action learning collaborative, and coaching of improvement teams. The intervention was informed and assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Data collection focused on changes and outcomes of improvement efforts among five HUs and one district-level team during the intervention (June 2011-February 2012) and five follow-up months