1,478 research outputs found

    Turing machines based on unsharp quantum logic

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    In this paper, we consider Turing machines based on unsharp quantum logic. For a lattice-ordered quantum multiple-valued (MV) algebra E, we introduce E-valued non-deterministic Turing machines (ENTMs) and E-valued deterministic Turing machines (EDTMs). We discuss different E-valued recursively enumerable languages from width-first and depth-first recognition. We find that width-first recognition is equal to or less than depth-first recognition in general. The equivalence requires an underlying E value lattice to degenerate into an MV algebra. We also study variants of ENTMs. ENTMs with a classical initial state and ENTMs with a classical final state have the same power as ENTMs with quantum initial and final states. In particular, the latter can be simulated by ENTMs with classical transitions under a certain condition. Using these findings, we prove that ENTMs are not equivalent to EDTMs and that ENTMs are more powerful than EDTMs. This is a notable difference from the classical Turing machines.Comment: In Proceedings QPL 2011, arXiv:1210.029

    Investigating Linguistic Pattern Ordering in Hierarchical Natural Language Generation

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    Natural language generation (NLG) is a critical component in spoken dialogue system, which can be divided into two phases: (1) sentence planning: deciding the overall sentence structure, (2) surface realization: determining specific word forms and flattening the sentence structure into a string. With the rise of deep learning, most modern NLG models are based on a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) model, which basically contains an encoder-decoder structure; these NLG models generate sentences from scratch by jointly optimizing sentence planning and surface realization. However, such simple encoder-decoder architecture usually fail to generate complex and long sentences, because the decoder has difficulty learning all grammar and diction knowledge well. This paper introduces an NLG model with a hierarchical attentional decoder, where the hierarchy focuses on leveraging linguistic knowledge in a specific order. The experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the traditional seq2seq model with a smaller model size, and the design of the hierarchical attentional decoder can be applied to various NLG systems. Furthermore, different generation strategies based on linguistic patterns are investigated and analyzed in order to guide future NLG research work.Comment: accepted by the 7th IEEE Workshop on Spoken Language Technology (SLT 2018). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1808.0274
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