7,563 research outputs found

    Dynamical Electron Mass in a Strong Magnetic Field

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    Motivated by recent interest in understanding properties of strongly magnetized matter, we study the dynamical electron mass generated through approximate chiral symmetry breaking in QED in a strong magnetic field. We reliably calculate the dynamical electron mass by numerically solving the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations in a consistent truncation within the lowest Landau level approximation. It is shown that the generation of dynamical electron mass in a strong magnetic field is significantly enhanced by the perturbative electron mass that explicitly breaks chiral symmetry in the absence of a magnetic field.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, published versio

    Mean parity of single quantum excitation of some optical fields in thermal environments

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    The mean parity (the Wigner function at the origin) of excited binomial states, excited coherent states and excited thermal states in thermal channel is investigated in details. It is found that the single-photon excited binomial state and the single-photon excited coherent state exhibit certain similarity in the aspect of their mean parity in the thermal channel. We show the negative mean parity can be regarded as an indicator of nonclassicality of single-photon excitation of optical fields with a little coherence, especially for the single-photon excited thermal states.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, RevTex4; PACS numbers: 42.50.Dv, 03.65.Yz, 05.40.Ca; Three typo errors have been correcte

    Collapse of Vacuum Bubbles in a Vacuum

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    Motivated by the discovery of a plenitude of metastable vacua in a string landscape and the possibility of rapid tunneling between these vacua, we revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications to inflationary physics.Comment: 8 pages including 6 figures, LaTex; references adde

    Experimental Comparisons of Derivative Free Optimization Algorithms

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    In this paper, the performances of the quasi-Newton BFGS algorithm, the NEWUOA derivative free optimizer, the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES), the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimizers (PSO) are compared experimentally on benchmark functions reflecting important challenges encountered in real-world optimization problems. Dependence of the performances in the conditioning of the problem and rotational invariance of the algorithms are in particular investigated.Comment: 8th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms, Dortmund : Germany (2009

    Similarity-Based Classification in Partially Labeled Networks

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    We propose a similarity-based method, using the similarity between nodes, to address the problem of classification in partially labeled networks. The basic assumption is that two nodes are more likely to be categorized into the same class if they are more similar. In this paper, we introduce ten similarity indices, including five local ones and five global ones. Empirical results on the co-purchase network of political books show that the similarity-based method can give high accurate classification even when the labeled nodes are sparse which is one of the difficulties in classification. Furthermore, we find that when the target network has many labeled nodes, the local indices can perform as good as those global indices do, while when the data is sparce the global indices perform better. Besides, the similarity-based method can to some extent overcome the unconsistency problem which is another difficulty in classification.Comment: 13 pages,3 figures,1 tabl

    Constraints on the Abundance of Highly Ionized Proto-Cluster Regions from the Absence of Large Voids in the Lyman Alpha Forest

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    Energetic feedback processes during the formation of galaxy clusters may have heated and ionized a large fraction of the intergalactic gas in proto-cluster regions. When such a highly ionized hot ``super-bubble'' falls along the sightline to a background quasar, it would be seen as a large void, with little or no absorption, in the Lyman alpha forest. We examine the spectra of 137 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to search for such voids, and find no clear evidence of their existence. The size distribution of voids in the range 5-70 Angstrom (corresponding to physical sizes of approximately 3-35 comoving Mpc/h) is consistent with the standard model for the Lyman alpha forest without additional hot bubbles. We adapt a physical model for HII bubble growth during cosmological reionization (Furlanetto, Zaldarriaga and Hernquist 2004), to describe the expected size-distribution of hot super-bubbles at redshift around z = 3. This model incorporates the conjoining of bubbles around individual neighboring galaxies. Using the non-detection of voids, we find that models in which the volume filling factor of hot bubbles exceeds approximately 20 percent at z=3 can be ruled out, primarily because they overproduce the number of large (40-50 Angstrom) voids. We conclude that any pre-heating mechanism that explains galaxy cluster observations must avoid heating the low-density gas in the proto-cluster regions, either by operating relatively recently (z<3) or by depositing entropy in the high-density regions.Comment: submitted to ApJ, 9 emulateapj pages with 3 figure

    Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and prognosis of breast cancer among African-American and Hispanic women.

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    BackgroundVitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Although African-Americans have the lowest levels of serum vitamin D, there is a dearth of information on VDR gene polymorphisms and breast cancer among African-Americans and Hispanics. This study examines whether VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer in these cohorts.MethodsBlood was collected from 232 breast cancer patients (Cases) and 349 non-cancer subjects (Controls). Genotyping for four polymorphic variants of VDR (FokI, BsmI, TaqI and ApaI) was performed using the PCR-RFLP method.ResultsAn increased association of the VDR-Fok1 f allele with breast cancer was observed in African-Americans (OR = 1.9, p = 0.07). Furthermore, the FbTA, FbtA and fbtA haplotypes were associated with breast cancer among African-Americans (p&lt;0.05). Latinas were more likely to have the VDR-ApaI alleles (Aa or aa) (p = 0.008). The VDR-ApaI aa genotype was significantly associated with poorly-differentiated breast tumors (p = 0.04) in combined Cases. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed decreased 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) in breast cancer patients who had the VDR-Fok1 FF genotype (p&lt;0.05). The Cox regression with multivariate analysis revealed the independent predictor value of the VDR-FokI polymorphism for DFS. The other three variants of VDR (BsmI, TaqI and ApaI) were not associated with disease outcome.ConclusionsVDR haplotypes are associated with breast cancer in African-Americans, but not in Hispanic/Latinas. The VDR-FokI FF genotype is linked with poor prognosis in African-American women with breast cancer
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