118 research outputs found

    Nutritional and lifestyle risk behaviors and their association with mental health and violence among Pakistani adolescents: results from the National Survey of 4583 individuals

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    Background: Unhealthy behaviors are associated with mental health problems and violence in adolescents, yet their combined association has been understudied. Using the Global School Health Survey, this study examined the association between combined unhealthy behaviors (including fast food, soft drink, smoking, other tobacco products and physical inactivity) and anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight among Pakistani adolescents. Methods: Data were obtained from the Global School Health Survey conducted in Pakistan (2009). The study population consisted of school going adolescents aged 13 to 15 years. Association of combined unhealthy behaviors with anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight were studied through secondary analysis. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis by complex sample method, accounting for cluster sampling technique used for data collection. Results: Of the total 4583 students, weighted percentage and unweighted count for one, two, three and four or more unhealthy behaviors was 39.4% (n = 1770), 22.1% (n = 963), 5.9% (n = 274) and 1.2% (n = 62) respectively. The weighted prevalence for anxiety, suicidal ideation and involvement in physical fight were 8.4%, 7.3% and 37.4% respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment showed that students who had four or more unhealthy behaviors had higher odds of; being anxious (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.31-4.59, p value 0.004), suicide ideation (OR 4.56, 95% CI 2.58-8.07, p value &lt;0.001) and being involved in physical fight (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.63–6.08, p value &lt;0.001) as compared to those who had not adopted any unhealthy behaviors. Conclusions: This study suggests that the co-occurrence of unhealthy behaviors is associated with anxiety, suicidal ideation and physical fight among adolescents. These findings should be considered when developing interventions to combat detrimental outcomes of unhealthy behaviors during adolescence.</p

    Impact of Political Instability on International Investment and Trade in Pakistan

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    This paper focuses on the effect of political instability on international investment and trade in Pakistan. The sample comprised of annual data for a period of 41 years (from 1976 to 2016). To test the long and short run relationships among the variables, ARDL model is applied and particularly Error Correction Model is used for short run analysis. To check the serial correlation in the ECM models, LM serial correlation test is applied. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) is also utilized to test the stability of the ARDL models. The unit root of all the variables is also tested and it is found that all the variables are stationary either at level or at first difference. Findings conclude that political instability badly hampers both the international investment and trade in the long-run. Moreover, in short-run, the political instability significantly hinders the foreign portfolio investment and exports. No significant impact of political instability is found on foreign direct investment and imports in the long run

    Impact of Political Instability on International Investment and Trade in Pakistan

    Get PDF
    This paper focuses on the effect of political instability on international investment and trade in Pakistan. The sample comprised of annual data for a period of 41 years (from 1976 to 2016). To test the long and short run relationships among the variables, ARDL model is applied and particularly Error Correction Model is used for short run analysis. To check the serial correlation in the ECM models, LM serial correlation test is applied. Cumulative sum (CUSUM) is also utilized to test the stability of the ARDL models. The unit root of all the variables is also tested and it is found that all the variables are stationary either at level or at first difference. Findings conclude that political instability badly hampers both the international investment and trade in the long-run. Moreover, in short-run, the political instability significantly hinders the foreign portfolio investment and exports. No significant impact of political instability is found on foreign direct investment and imports in the long run

    Asset Pricing Model Conditional on Up and Down Market for Emerging Market: The Case of Pakistan

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    This study proposes an asset pricing model conditional on up and down market for emerging market and tests its validity in Pakistan on individual stocks of Karachi Stock Exchange from July 2004 to December 2012. The basic capital asset pricing model is also tested. The results indicate that when emerging market undergoes negative market excess return, basic capital asset pricing model is inaccurate to predict stock returns. Although the conditional asset pricing model accurately predicts the risk-return trade off with beta as sole determinant of stock returns when there is up market, however yet it is significantly variant during down market where significant impact of residuals is evinced on stock returns.  The market excess returns of up and down markets are also found asymmetric. The study implies that conditional asset pricing model can be an adequate technique for investors and portfolio managers considering investments in emerging markets. Keywords: Asset Pricing Model, Conditional, Pakistan, Emerging Market, Up Market, Down Market. JEL Codes: C21, C22, G10, G12, G1

    Abstracts from the 7th annual neurology research day, shifa international hospital, islamabad

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    :It\u27s a cross sectional study conducted at CP clinic of Armed Forces institute of Rehabilitation medicine Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to Jan 2013. All cerebral palsy children above 2 years of age and both genders were included in study. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis

    Do Exchange Rates Fluctuations Influence Gold Price in G7 Countries? New Insights from a Nonparametric Causality-in-Quantiles Test

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    In the recent era, gold is considered an essential investment source, a source of hedging inflation, and a medium of monetary exchange. The gold and exchange rate nexus become prominent after events like sovereign debt crisis, subprime mortgage crisis, low-interest rate problem, and global financial market solvency. These events attract the attention of researchers and academician for investigating the dynamics of the relationship between gold and exchange rates, and the majority of the studies discusses the linear dynamics, but the non-linear dynamics are ignored. Therefore, the current research investigates the non-linear dynamics of gold price and exchange rate relationship in G7 countries using the new technique named the nonparametric causality approach. This study uses monthly data from the years 1995(January)-2017 (March). The empirical results show that exchange rate return causes gold prices in four out of G7, especially at the low tails. This study also gives valuable insights for monetary policymakers, gold exporter’s international portfolio managers, and hedge fund managers

    Influence of the Big Five personality traits on academic motivation among higher education students: Evidence from developing nation

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    This study examines the association between the personality traits and academic motivation among higher education institution students of Pakistan. The data is collected from the survey-questionnaire using the convenience sampling technique. In total, 350 questionnaires are collected, however, the useful sample id 320. The technique through which the analysis was performed is PLS-SEM. The dependent variable of the study is academic motivation which was measured by using the LASSI scale. The independent variables of the study are personality traits i.e., Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness which is measured by using NEO-FFI. The result shows that all the personality traits create a significant positive effect on academic motivation except for agreeableness which has an insignificant effect on academic motivation. This study highlights the importance of personality trait in forming academic motivation of the students and also help the educational institutions and teachers to develop strategies accordingly

    Influence of the Big Five personality traits on academic motivation among higher education students: Evidence from developing nation

    Get PDF
    This study examines the association between the personality traits and academic motivation among higher education institution students of Pakistan. The data is collected from the survey-questionnaire using the convenience sampling technique. In total, 350 questionnaires are collected, however, the useful sample id 320. The technique through which the analysis was performed is PLS-SEM. The dependent variable of the study is academic motivation which was measured by using the LASSI scale. The independent variables of the study are personality traits i.e., Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness which is measured by using NEO-FFI. The result shows that all the personality traits create a significant positive effect on academic motivation except for agreeableness which has an insignificant effect on academic motivation. This study highlights the importance of personality trait in forming academic motivation of the students and also help the educational institutions and teachers to develop strategies accordingly

    Impact of Financial Development, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption On Environmental Degradation: Evidence from Pakistan

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    With the advent of globalization and industrialization, the life of human being has become luxurious, efficient and comfortable but at the same time, the economies are facing the challenge of environmental degradation. Environmental degradation has become the significant problem around the world and increasing day by day. Amongst many, the key reasons of this environmental degradation are the financial development and energy consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of financial development, economic growth and energy consumption on environmental degradation in Pakistan. We construct financial development index for Pakistan by applying principle component method on the major four proxies of financial development available in literature namely; domestic credit by banking sector, domestic credit to private sector, stock market capitalization, and liquid liabilities. The unit root test, co-integration test, and ordinary least square analyses have been applied on the historical data over the period of 1972-2014. The empirical evidence shows that all the variables have a significant positive effect on environmental degradation which means an increase in any variable will increase the environmental degradation. This study will be beneficial for the strategy makers and government of Pakistan in the formulation of eco-friendly strategies

    Impact of Financial Development, Economic Growth and Energy Consumption On Environmental Degradation: Evidence from Pakistan

    Get PDF
    With the advent of globalization and industrialization, the life of human being has become luxurious, efficient and comfortable but at the same time, the economies are facing the challenge of environmental degradation. Environmental degradation has become the significant problem around the world and increasing day by day. Amongst many, the key reasons of this environmental degradation are the financial development and energy consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of financial development, economic growth and energy consumption on environmental degradation in Pakistan. We construct financial development index for Pakistan by applying principle component method on the major four proxies of financial development available in literature namely; domestic credit by banking sector, domestic credit to private sector, stock market capitalization, and liquid liabilities. The unit root test, co-integration test, and ordinary least square analyses have been applied on the historical data over the period of 1972-2014. The empirical evidence shows that all the variables have a significant positive effect on environmental degradation which means an increase in any variable will increase the environmental degradation. This study will be beneficial for the strategy makers and government of Pakistan in the formulation of eco-friendly strategies
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