352 research outputs found

    Eliciting Expertise

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    Since the last edition of this book there have been rapid developments in the use and exploitation of formally elicited knowledge. Previously, (Shadbolt and Burton, 1995) the emphasis was on eliciting knowledge for the purpose of building expert or knowledge-based systems. These systems are computer programs intended to solve real-world problems, achieving the same level of accuracy as human experts. Knowledge engineering is the discipline that has evolved to support the whole process of specifying, developing and deploying knowledge-based systems (Schreiber et al., 2000) This chapter will discuss the problem of knowledge elicitation for knowledge intensive systems in general

    Supporting Online Social Networks

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    Knowledge-based acquisition of tradeoff preferences of negotiating agents

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    A wide range of algorithms have been developed for various types of automated egotiation. In developing such algorithms the main focus has been on their efficiency and their effectiveness. However, this is only part of the picture. Agents typically negotiate on behalf of their owners and for this to be effective the agent must be able to adequately represent the owners' preferences. However, the process by which such knowledge is acquired is typically left unspecified. To remove this shortcoming, we present a case study indicating how the knowledge for a particular negotiation algorithm can be acquired. More precisely, according to the analysis on the automated negotiation model, we identified that user trade-off preferences play a fundamental role in negotiation in general. This topic has been addressed little in the research area of user preference elicitation for general decision making problems as well. In a previous paper, we proposed an exhaustive method to acquire user trade-off preferences. In this paper, we developed another method to remove the limitation of the high user workload of the exhaustive method. Although we cannot say that it can exactly capture user trade-off preferences, it models the main commonalities of trade-off relations and re users' individualities as well

    The Semantic Grid: A future e-Science infrastructure

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    e-Science offers a promising vision of how computer and communication technology can support and enhance the scientific process. It does this by enabling scientists to generate, analyse, share and discuss their insights, experiments and results in an effective manner. The underlying computer infrastructure that provides these facilities is commonly referred to as the Grid. At this time, there are a number of grid applications being developed and there is a whole raft of computer technologies that provide fragments of the necessary functionality. However there is currently a major gap between these endeavours and the vision of e-Science in which there is a high degree of easy-to-use and seamless automation and in which there are flexible collaborations and computations on a global scale. To bridge this practice–aspiration divide, this paper presents a research agenda whose aim is to move from the current state of the art in e-Science infrastructure, to the future infrastructure that is needed to support the full richness of the e-Science vision. Here the future e-Science research infrastructure is termed the Semantic Grid (Semantic Grid to Grid is meant to connote a similar relationship to the one that exists between the Semantic Web and the Web). In particular, we present a conceptual architecture for the Semantic Grid. This architecture adopts a service-oriented perspective in which distinct stakeholders in the scientific process, represented as software agents, provide services to one another, under various service level agreements, in various forms of marketplace. We then focus predominantly on the issues concerned with the way that knowledge is acquired and used in such environments since we believe this is the key differentiator between current grid endeavours and those envisioned for the Semantic Grid

    The Need for Sensemaking in Networked Privacy and Algorithmic Responsibility

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    This paper proposes that two significant and emerging problems facing our connected, data-driven society may be more effectively solved by being framed as sensemaking challenges. The first is in empowering individuals to take control of their privacy, in device-rich information environments where personal information is fed transparently to complex networks of information brokers. Although sensemaking is often framed as an analytical activity undertaken by experts, due to the fact that non-specialist end-users are now being forced to make expert-like decisions in complex information environments, we argue that it is both appropriate and important to consider sensemaking challenges in this context. The second is in supporting human-in-the-loop algorithmic decision-making, in which important decisions bringing direct consequences for individuals, or indirect consequences for groups, are made with the support of data-driven algorithmic systems. In both privacy and algorithmic decision-making, framing the problems as sensemaking challenges acknowledges complex and illdefined problem structures, and affords the opportunity to view these activities as both building up relevant expertise schemas over time, and being driven potentially by recognition-primed decision making

    'It's Reducing a Human Being to a Percentage'; Perceptions of Procedural Justice in Algorithmic Decisions

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    Data-driven decision-making consequential to individuals raises important questions of accountability and justice. Indeed, European law provides individuals limited rights to ‘meaningful information about the logic’ behind significant, autonomous decisions such as loan approvals, insurance quotes, and CV filtering. We undertake three studies examining people's perceptions of justice in algorithmic decision-making under different scenarios and explanation styles. Dimensions of justice previously observed in response to human decision-making appear similarly engaged in response to algorithmic decisions. Qualitative analysis identified several concerns and heuristics involved in justice perceptions including arbitrariness, generalisation, and (in)dignity. Quantitative analysis indicates that explanation styles primarily matter to justice perceptions only when subjects are exposed to multiple different styles—under repeated exposure of one style, scenario effects obscure any explanation effects. Our results suggests there may be no 'best’ approach to explaining algorithmic decisions, and that reflection on their automated nature both implicates and mitigates justice dimensions

    Utilising semantic technologies for intelligent indexing and retrieval of digital images

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    The proliferation of digital media has led to a huge interest in classifying and indexing media objects for generic search and usage. In particular, we are witnessing colossal growth in digital image repositories that are difficult to navigate using free-text search mechanisms, which often return inaccurate matches as they in principle rely on statistical analysis of query keyword recurrence in the image annotation or surrounding text. In this paper we present a semantically-enabled image annotation and retrieval engine that is designed to satisfy the requirements of the commercial image collections market in terms of both accuracy and efficiency of the retrieval process. Our search engine relies on methodically structured ontologies for image annotation, thus allowing for more intelligent reasoning about the image content and subsequently obtaining a more accurate set of results and a richer set of alternatives matchmaking the original query. We also show how our well-analysed and designed domain ontology contributes to the implicit expansion of user queries as well as the exploitation of lexical databases for explicit semantic-based query expansion

    Knowledge Enhanced Searching on the Web

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    Towards a killer app for the Semantic Web

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    Killer apps are highly transformative technologies that create new markets and widespread patterns of behaviour. IT generally, and the Web in particular, has benefited from killer apps to create new networks of users and increase its value. The Semantic Web community on the other hand is still awaiting a killer app that proves the superiority of its technologies. There are certain features that distinguish killer apps from other ordinary applications. This paper examines those features in the context of the Semantic Web, in the hope that a better understanding of the characteristics of killer apps might encourage their consideration when developing Semantic Web applications
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