6,536 research outputs found

    A state-of-the-art review on torque distribution strategies aimed at enhancing energy efficiency for fully electric vehicles with independently actuated drivetrains

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    © 2019, Levrotto and Bella. All rights reserved. Electric vehicles are the future of private passenger transportation. However, there are still several technological barriers that hinder the large scale adoption of electric vehicles. In particular, their limited autonomy motivates studies on methods for improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles so as to make them more attractive to the market. This paper provides a concise review on the current state-of-the-art of torque distribution strategies aimed at enhancing energy efficiency for fully electric vehicles with independently actuated drivetrains (FEVIADs). Starting from the operating principles, which include the "control allocation" problem, the peculiarities of each proposed solution are illustrated. All the existing techniques are categorized based on a selection of parameters deemed relevant to provide a comprehensive overview and understanding of the topic. Finally, future concerns and research perspectives for FEVIAD are discussed

    Diboson search and multivariate tools in the pp¯→ lν + heavy flavor channel at CDF

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    This paper describes the application of machine learning techniques to the diboson search in the lepton plus neutrino plus heavy flavor jets channel at CDF. Three different aspects of this challenging search are analyzed: multijet background rejection with the use of a support vector machine discriminant, light/heavy flavor jets separation with a 26 input variable neural network and b-jet specific energy corrections, where a resolution improvement is obtained feeding a neural network with both calorimeter and tracking information

    The three-dimensional wake behind an obstacle on a flat plate

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    Three dimensional incompressible wake behind blunt obstacle located at leading edge of flat plat

    Autonomic pain responses during sleep: a study of heart rate variability

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    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) reacts to nociceptive stimulation during sleep, but whether this reaction is contingent to cortical arousal, and whether one of the autonomic arms (sympathetic/parasympathetic) predominates over the other remains unknown. We assessed ANS reactivity to nociceptive stimulation during all sleep stages through heart rate variability, and correlated the results with the presence of cortical arousal measured in concomitant 32-channel EEG. Fourteen healthy volunteers underwent whole-night polysomnography during which nociceptive laser stimuli were applied over the hand. RR intervals (RR) and spectral analysis by wavelet transform were performed to assess parasympathetic (HF(WV)) and sympathetic (LF(WV) and LF(WV)/HF(WV) ratio) reactivity. During all sleep stages, RR significantly decreased in reaction to nociceptive stimulations, reaching a level similar to that of wakefulness, at the 3rd beat post-stimulus and returning to baseline after seven beats. This RR decrease was associated with an increase in sympathetic LF(WV) and LF(WV)/HF(WV) ratio without any parasympathetic HF(WV) change. Albeit RR decrease existed even in the absence of arousals, it was significantly higher when an arousal followed the noxious stimulus. These results suggest that the sympathetic-dependent cardiac activation induced by nociceptive stimuli is modulated by a sleep dependent phenomenon related to cortical activation and not by sleep itself, since it reaches a same intensity whatever the state of vigilance

    Influence of energy cost and physical fitness on the preferred walking speed and gait variability in elderly women

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    Typically gait speed decreases and gait variability increases in elderly. The aim of this study was to define the influence of energy cost of walking on gait speed and of health-related physical fitness on gait variability. Thirty healthy young and older women were recruited in the study. Energy cost of walking (NetCW) was analyzed with indirect calorimetry while a kinematic analysis was performed with an optoelectronic system to calculate gait variability (GV) during treadmill walking at different speeds. Gait speed was defined as the preferred walking speed (PWS) of the subject and health related physical fitness (HRPF) comprised body fat, strength, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness. In healthy elderly women, the coefficient of variation of step width was found to be a better indicator of GV than stride time, stride length and double support coefficients of variation. GV was not affected by age allowing a high PWS. Furthermore, significant associations, adjusted for age, body mass index and number of falls, were identified neither between NetCW and the PWS, nor between HRPF and GV; only a significant association was found between hand-grip strength and gait stability. Findings highlighted the importance to evaluate hand-grip strength as an indicator of gait efficiency

    Standardised surface electromyography allows effective submental muscles assessment

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    The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate: (i) the reproducibility and variability of an electromyographical protocol developed for the assessment of submental muscles (SM) (ii) to apply the new protocol to maximal teeth clenching, a simple and largely studied static task in order to quantify the relative contribution of submental muscles. In 20 healthy subjects, aged 19-35years, surface electromyography of SM, masseter (MM) and anterior temporalis (TA) muscles was performed during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC) with and without cotton rolls and the pushing of the tongue against the palate. Clenching on cotton rolls and pushing the tongue against the palate were used to standardise respectively MM and TA, and SM muscular potentials. The exercises were repeated in two appointments (T1-T2); submental muscles standardisation was also repeated twice (A-B) in each session to assess repeatability. Symmetry and activity were calculated for each couple of muscles. A two-way analysis of variance was computed for SM: no Factor 1 (T1 vs T2) or Factor 2 (A vs B) or F1 7F2 significant effects were found. SM recruitment was 31% of the maximal activity, with symmetry values larger than 80%. In conclusion, standardised electromyography allows a reliable assessment of Submental muscles activity

    Kinematic algorithm to determine the energy cost of running with changes of direction

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    Changes of direction (CoDs) have a high metabolic and mechanical impact in field and court team sports, but the estimation of the associated workload is still inaccurate. This study aims at validating an algorithm based on kinematic data to estimate the energy cost of running with frequent 180\ub0-CoDs. Twenty-six physically active male subjects (22.4\u202f\ub1\u202f3.2\u202fyears) participated in two sessions: (1) maximum oxygen uptake (V\u307O2,max) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) test; (2) 5-m continuous shuttle run (two 5-min trials at 50% and 75% MAS, 6-min recovery). In (2), full-body 3D-kinematics and V\u307O2 were simultaneously recorded. Actual cost of shuttle running (Cmeas) was obtained from the aerobic, anaerobic alactic and lactic components. The proposed algorithm detects "braking phases", periods of mostly negative (eccentric) work occurring at concurrent knee flexion and ground contact, and estimates energy cost (Cest) considering negative mechanical work in braking phases, and positive elsewhere. At the speed of, respectively, 1.54\u202f\ub1\u202f0.17 and 1.90\u202f\ub1\u202f0.15\u202fm\u202fs-1 (rate of perceived exertion: 9.1\u202f\ub1\u202f1.8 and 15.8\u202f\ub1\u202f1.9), Cmeas was 8.06\u202f\ub1\u202f0.49 and 9.04\u202f\ub1\u202f0.73\u202fJ\u202fkg-1\u202fm-1. Cest was more accurate than regression models found in literature (p\u202f\u202f0.05; average error: 8.3%, root-mean-square error: 0.86\u202fJ\u202fkg-1\u202fm-1). The proposed algorithm improved existing techniques based on CoM kinematics, integrating data of ground contacts and joint angles that allowed to separate propulsive from braking phases. This work constitutes the basis to extend the model from the laboratory to the field, providing a reliable measure of training and matches workload

    Unexpected one-pot synthesis of highly conjugated pentacyclic diquinoid compounds

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    A new class of pentacyclic diquinoid compounds has been synthesized with a facile one-pot reaction of two molecules of 2-hydroxynaphthoquinone and 1-bromoalkanes in the presence of ferrocene. These molecules were isolated as enol tautomers that exhibit intramolecular hydrogen bond and extended electronic conjugation as proved by the intense absorption spectrum with a broad band between 400 and 600 nm. The spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of this new class of compounds has been performed. One of the synthesized diquinoid derivatives showed a significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 25−50 μM against Cisplatin-Resistant SKOV3 and colon carcinoma SW480 cell lines. The results of our study provide a valuable tool to a one-pot synthesis of highly conjugated polyquinones, analogous to important biological systems, with significant antitumoral activity

    A retrospective analysis of 1.011 percutaneous liver biopsies performed in patients with liver transplantation or liver disease: ultrasonography can reduce complications?

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    Objective: In the last decades, liver biopsy was the reference procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of liver disease. Aim of present retrospective analysis was to assess the prevalence of complications and risk factors after Percutaneous Liver Biopsy (PLB) performed for diagnosis and staging in patients with chronic liver disease and for monitoring the graft in liver transplanted patients Patients and methods: Data were collected from a total of 1.011 PLB performed with the Menghini technique between January 2004 and December 2014 at the Hepatology and Transplant Units of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. The indications for biopsy were: follow-up of liver transplantation, chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and alcohol-related liver disease. Our patients were divided into two groups according to the biopsy indication: follow-up of liver transplantation (Group A) and chronic liver disease (Group B). All the procedures were performed in Day Hospital regimen. After the biopsy, patients remained in bed for about 4-6 hours. In the absence of complications, they were then discharged on the same day. Results: The most frequent complication after biopsy was pain (Group A n. 57, 8.8%; Group B n. 105, 29.0%), hypotension as a result of a vasovagal reaction resolved spontaneously (Group A n. 7, 1.1%; Group B n. 6, 1.7%), and intrahepatic bleeding resolved with conservative therapy (Group A n. 1, 0.2%; Group B n. 6, 1.7%). Two cases of pneumothorax in the Group A (0.3%) were treated with a chest tube. Other complications did not have a significant impact. Also, we did not observe statistically significant differences in patients who underwent PLB without and with ultrasound guidance. Conclusions: Liver biopsy is not a replaceable tool in diagnosis and follow-up of several chronic liver diseases. The Menghini technique with the percutaneous trans costal approach, might be preferred because less traumatic and related with a low occurrence of minor and major complications. According to our case load and comparing our findings with the previous published data, we speculate that ultrasound guidance is not crucial in the prevention of major complications
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