2,600 research outputs found

    A Pre-Merger Stage Galaxy Cluster: Abell 3733

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    The galaxy cluster Abell 3733 (A3733) is a very suitable candidate in addressing dynamical processes throughout galaxy cluster mergers. This study shows structural analysis results of A3733 (z = 0.038) based on X-ray and optical data. According to X-ray luminosity map, A3733 hosts two sub-structures separated in the sky by \sim 0.25 Mpc, and the two distinct clumps are located in the East (A3733E) and the West (A3733W) directions. Both sub-structures are centred on two different brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and the X-ray and optical centroids of both BCGs substantially coincide with each other. The intracluster medium (ICM) temperatures of the sub-structures are estimated to be 2.79 keV for A3733E and 3.28 keV for A3733W. Both sub-structures are found to be hosting cool central gas (kT \sim 1.5-2.5 keV) surrounded by hotter gas (kT \sim 3.0-3.5 keV). Besides, the X-ray concentration parameters are found to be c \sim 0.3 for each sub-structure. These results indicate the existence of cool centres for both sub-structures. The optical density map reveals a crowded galaxy population within the vicinity of A3733W. The high probable (% 88.2) dynamical binding model of A3733 suggests that the cores of sub-structures have a 3D separation of 0.27 Mpc and will collide in 0.14 Gyr with the relative in-falling velocity of 1936 km s1^{-1}. As a conclusion, this study demonstrates some evidence suggesting that the A3733 system is in the pre-merger state.Comment: 9 pages, 7 Figures, published by MNRA

    Anti-nausea effects and pharmacokinetics of ondansetron, maropitant and metoclopramide in a low-dose cisplatin model of nausea and vomiting in the dog: a blinded crossover study

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    Nausea is a subjective sensation which is difficult to measure in non-verbal species. The aims of this study were to determine the efficacy of three classes of antiemetic drugs in a novel low dose cisplatin model of nausea and vomiting and measure change in potential nausea biomarkers arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol. A four period cross-over blinded study was conducted in eight healthy beagle dogs of both genders. Dogs were administered 18 mg/m2 cisplatin intravenously, followed 45 min later by a 15 min infusion of either placebo (saline) or antiemetic treatment with ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg; 5-HT3 antagonist), maropitant (1 mg/kg; NK1 antagonist) or metoclopramide (0.5 mg/kg; D2 antagonist). The number of vomits and nausea associated behaviours, scored on a visual analogue scale, were recorded every 15 min for 8 h following cisplatin administration. Plasma samples were collected to measure AVP, cortisol and antiemetic drug concentrations

    Dirac field in topologically massive gravity

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    We consider a Dirac field coupled minimally to the Mielke-Baekler model of gravity and investigate cosmological solutions in three dimensions. We arrive at a family of solutions which exists even in the limit of vanishing cosmological constant.Comment: 12 pages. Title changed. Conclusion extended. Appendix added. To appear in Gen. Rel. Gra

    Yeast biota of naturally fermented black olives in different brines made from cv. Gemlik grown in various districts of the Cukurova region of Turkey

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    In this study, the yeast microbiota of naturally fermented black olives made from cv. Gemlik, grown in three different districts of the Çukurova region of Turkey, were investigated. Fermentations were conducted for 180 days in three different brines, including NaCl 10% w/v, NaCl 8% w/v and NaCl 8% w/v added with glucose 0.5%. In total, 223 yeasts were isolated and then identified by PCR–RFLP analysis of the 5.8S ITS rRNA region and sequence information for the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. A broad range of yeast biodiversity was identified, including eight genera and nine species. Candida boidinii (41%), Wickerhamomyces anomalus (32%) and Saccharomyces sp. (18%) were predominant yeasts throughout the fermentations. To a lesser extent, the other species, Candida aaseri, Meyerozyma sp., Zygoascus hellenicus, Pichia kudriavzevii, Schwanniomyces etchellsii and Candida atlantica were also members of the olive-fermenting microbiota. In Tarsus and Bahçe districts C. boidinii and in Serinyol district Saccharomyces sp. were the most frequently identified species. W. anomalus was the most frequently isolated species (by 48% of total yeasts) in NaCl 10% brines. C. boidinii was the most dominant species in the brines, including NaCl 8% and NaCl 8% + glucose 0.5%, with frequencies of 42% and 61%, respectively. At the end of the 180 days of fermentation, total acidity values of the brines were in the range 1.04–8.1 g/l lactic acid. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Assessment of low-dose cisplatin as a model of nausea and emesis in beagle dogs, potential for repeated administration

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    Cisplatin is a highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy agent, which is often used to induce nausea and emesis in animal models. The cytotoxic properties of cisplatin also cause adverse events that negatively impact on animal welfare preventing repeated administration of cisplatin. In this study, we assessed whether a low (subclinical) dose of cisplatin could be utilized as a model of nausea and emesis in the dog while decreasing the severity of adverse events to allow repeated administration. The emetic, nausea-like behavior and potential biomarker response to both the clinical dose (70 mg/m2) and low dose (15 mg/m2) of cisplatin was assessed. Plasma creatinine concentrations and granulocyte counts were used to assess adverse effects on the kidneys and bone marrow, respectively. Nausea-like behavior and emesis was induced by both doses of cisplatin, but the latency to onset was greater in the low-dose group. No significant change in plasma creatinine was detected for either dose groups. Granulocytes were significantly reduced compared with baseline (P = 0.000) following the clinical, but not the low-dose cisplatin group. Tolerability of repeated administration was assessed with 4 administrations of an 18 mg/m2 dose cisplatin. Plasma creatinine did not change significantly. Cumulative effects on the granulocytes occurred, they were significantly decreased (P = 0.03) from baseline at 3 weeks following cisplatin for the 4th administration only. Our results suggest that subclinical doses (15 and 18 mg/m2) of cisplatin induce nausea-like behavior and emesis but have reduced adverse effects compared with the clinical dose allowing for repeated administration in crossover studies

    Day-night variation of acute myocardial infarction in obstructive sleep apnea.

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    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the day-night variation of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea has a high prevalence and is characterized by acute nocturnal hemodynamic and neurohormonal abnormalities that may increase the risk of MI during the night. METHODS: We prospectively studied 92 patients with MI for which the time of onset of chest pain was clearly identified. The presence of OSA was determined by overnight polysomnography. RESULTS: For patients with and without OSA, we compared the frequency of MI during different intervals of the day based on the onset time of chest pain. The groups had similar prevalence of comorbidities. Myocardial infarction occurred between 12 am and 6 am in 32% of OSA patients and 7% of non-OSA patients (p = 0.01). The odds of having OSA in those patients whose MI occurred between 12 am and 6 am was 6-fold higher than in the remaining 18 h of the day (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 27.3, p = 0.01). Of all patients having an MI between 12 am and 6 am, 91% had OSA. CONCLUSIONS: The diurnal variation in the onset of MI in OSA patients is strikingly different from the diurnal variation in non-OSA patients. Patients with nocturnal onset of MI have a high likelihood of having OSA. These findings suggest that OSA may be a trigger for MI. Patients having nocturnal onset of MI should be evaluated for OSA, and future research should address the effects of OSA therapy for prevention of nocturnal cardiac events

    Retrospective harm benefit analysis of pre-clinical animal research for six treatment interventions

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    The harm benefit analysis (HBA) is the cornerstone of animal research regulation and is considered to be a key ethical safeguard for animals. The HBA involves weighing the anticipated benefits of animal research against its predicted harms to animals but there are doubts about how objective and accountable this process is.i. To explore the harms to animals involved in pre-clinical animal studies and to assess these against the benefits for humans accruing from these studies; ii. To test the feasibility of conducting this type of retrospective HBA.Data on harms were systematically extracted from a sample of pre-clinical animal studies whose clinical relevance had already been investigated by comparing systematic reviews of the animal studies with systematic reviews of human studies for the same interventions (antifibrinolytics for haemorrhage, bisphosphonates for osteoporosis, corticosteroids for brain injury, Tirilazad for stroke, antenatal corticosteroids for neonatal respiratory distress and thrombolytics for stroke). Clinical relevance was also explored in terms of current clinical practice. Harms were categorised for severity using an expert panel. The quality of the research and its impact were considered. Bateson's Cube was used to conduct the HBA.The most common assessment of animal harms by the expert panel was 'severe'. Reported use of analgesia was rare and some animals (including most neonates) endured significant procedures with no, or only light, anaesthesia reported. Some animals suffered iatrogenic harms. Many were kept alive for long periods post-experimentally but only 1% of studies reported post-operative care. A third of studies reported that some animals died prior to endpoints. All the studies were of poor quality. Having weighed the actual harms to animals against the actual clinical benefits accruing from these studies, and taking into account the quality of the research and its impact, less than 7% of the studies were permissible according to Bateson's Cube: only the moderate bisphosphonate studies appeared to minimise harms to animals whilst being associated with benefit for humans.This is the first time the accountability of the HBA has been systematically explored across a range of pre-clinical animal studies. The regulatory systems in place when these studies were conducted failed to safeguard animals from severe suffering or to ensure that only beneficial, scientifically rigorous research was conducted. Our findings indicate a pressing need to: i. review regulations, particularly those that permit animals to suffer severe harms; ii. reform the processes of prospectively assessing pre-clinical animal studies to make them fit for purpose; and iii. systematically evaluate the benefits of pre-clinical animal research to permit a more realistic assessment of its likely future benefits