4,859 research outputs found

    Experimental Techniques

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    Experimental application of sum rules for electron energy loss magnetic chiral dichroism

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    We present a derivation of the orbital and spin sum rules for magnetic circular dichroic spectra measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. These sum rules are obtained from the differential cross section calculated for symmetric positions in the diffraction pattern. Orbital and spin magnetic moments are expressed explicitly in terms of experimental spectra and dynamical diffraction coefficients. We estimate the ratio of spin to orbital magnetic moments and discuss first experimental results for the Fe L_{2,3} edge.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figure

    Energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD): Magnetic chiral dichroism in the electron microscope

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    A new technique called energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) has recently been developed [P. Schattschneider, et al. Nature 441, 486 (2006)] to measure magnetic circular dichroism in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a spatial resolution of 10 nm. This novel technique is the TEM counterpart of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, which is widely used for the characterization of magnetic materials with synchrotron radiation. In this paper we describe several experimental methods that can be used to measure the EMCD signal [P. Schattschneider, et al. Nature 441, 486 (2006); C. HĂ©bert, et al. Ultramicroscopy 108(3), 277 (2008); B. Warot-Fonrose, et al. Ultramicroscopy 108(5), 393 (2008); L. Calmels, et al. Phys. Rev. B 76, 060409 (2007); P. van Aken, et al. Microsc. Microanal. 13(3), 426 (2007)] and give a review of the recent improvements of this new investigation tool. The dependence of the EMCD on several experimental conditions (such as thickness, relative orientation of beam and sample, collection and convergence angle) is investigated in the transition metals iron, cobalt, and nickel. Different scattering geometries are illustrated; their advantages and disadvantages are detailed, together with current limitations. The next realistic perspectives of this technique consist of measuring atomic specific magnetic moments, using suitable spin and orbital sum rules, [L. Calmels, et al. Phys. Rev. B 76, 060409 (2007); J. Rusz, et al. Phys. Rev. B 76, 060408 (2007)] with a resolution down to 2 to 3 n

    Determination of the branching ratios Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→π+π−π0)\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi^+ \pi^- \pi^0) and Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→πeÎœ)\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi e \nu )

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    Improved branching ratios were measured for the KL→3π0K_L \to 3 \pi^0 decay in a neutral beam at the CERN SPS with the NA31 detector: Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→π+π−π0)=1.611±0.037\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi^+ \pi^- \pi^0) = 1.611 \pm 0.037 and Γ(KL→3π0)/Γ(KL→πeÎœ)=0.545±0.010\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0) / \Gamma (K_L \to \pi e \nu ) = 0.545 \pm 0.010. From the first number an upper limit for ΔI=5/2\Delta I =5/2 and ΔI=7/2\Delta I = 7/2 transitions in neutral kaon decay is derived. Using older results for the Ke3/KÎŒ\mu 3 fraction, the 3π0\pi^0 branching ratio is found to be Γ(KL→3π0)/Γtot=(0.211±0.003)\Gamma (K_L \to 3 \pi^0 )/ \Gamma_{tot} = (0.211 \pm 0.003), about a factor three more precise than from previous experiments

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model: Group Summary Report

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    CONTENTS: 1. Synopsis, 2. The MSSM Spectrum, 3. The Physical Parameters, 4. Higgs Boson Production and Decays, 5. SUSY Particle Production and Decays, 6. Experimental Bounds on SUSY Particle Masses, 7. References.Comment: 121 pages, latex + epsfig, graphicx, axodraw, Report of the MSSM working group for the Workshop "GDR-Supersym\'etrie",France. Rep. PM/98-4

    Potential use of pepper waste and microalgae Spirulina sp. for bioelectricity generation

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    The research aimed to generate bioelectricity using pepper waste and the microalgae Spirulina sp by a double-chamber microbial fuel cell (dcMFC). A dcMFC was constructed with Cu and Zn electrodes, where organic waste and microalgae were placed in the anodic and cathodic chambers, respectively. Also, electrochemical parameters were measured for 35 days. Finally, possible electrogenic microorganisms were isolated and identified. It was possible to generate maximum values of current (6.04414 ± 0.2145 mA) and voltage (0.77328 ± 0.213 V). The maximum conductivity value was 134.1636 ± 7.121 mS/cm, while the internal resistance value was 83.784 . The values of power and current density reached were 584.45 ± 19.14 mW/cm 2 and 5.983 A/cm 2, respectively. The optimal operating pH was 4.59 ± 0.14. From the microbial growth on the anode, the yeast Yarrowia phangngaensis (1) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (2) were identified, which may be involved in the transfer of electrons to the electrode. In conclusion, it was possible to generate clean energy in a laboratory-scale dcMFC when pepper waste and Spirulina sp. were used. These results are promising because organic waste can generate sustainable and environmentally friendly energy

    Energy Linearity and Resolution of the ATLAS Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter in an Electron Test-Beam

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    A module of the ATLAS electromagnetic barrel liquid argon calorimeter was exposed to the CERN electron test-beam at the H8 beam line upgraded for precision momentum measurement. The available energies of the electron beam ranged from 10 to 245 GeV. The electron beam impinged at one point corresponding to a pseudo-rapidity of eta=0.687 and an azimuthal angle of phi=0.28 in the ATLAS coordinate system. A detailed study of several effects biasing the electron energy measurement allowed an energy reconstruction procedure to be developed that ensures a good linearity and a good resolution. Use is made of detailed Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant which describe the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles as well as the energy distributions. For electron energies between 15 GeV and 180 GeV the deviation of the measured incident electron energy over the beam energy is within 0.1%. The systematic uncertainty of the measurement is about 0.1% at low energies and negligible at high energies. The energy resolution is found to be about 10% sqrt(E) for the sampling term and about 0.2% for the local constant term

    Fundamental Phenomena on Fuel Decomposition and Boundary-Layer Combustion Precesses with Applications to Hybrid Rocket Motors

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    This final report summarizes the major findings on the subject of 'Fundamental Phenomena on Fuel Decomposition and Boundary-Layer Combustion Processes with Applications to Hybrid Rocket Motors', performed from 1 April 1994 to 30 June 1996. Both experimental results from Task 1 and theoretical/numerical results from Task 2 are reported here in two parts. Part 1 covers the experimental work performed and describes the test facility setup, data reduction techniques employed, and results of the test firings, including effects of operating conditions and fuel additives on solid fuel regression rate and thermal profiles of the condensed phase. Part 2 concerns the theoretical/numerical work. It covers physical modeling of the combustion processes including gas/surface coupling, and radiation effect on regression rate. The numerical solution of the flowfield structure and condensed phase regression behavior are presented. Experimental data from the test firings were used for numerical model validation

    Position resolution and particle identification with the ATLAS EM calorimeter

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    In the years between 2000 and 2002 several pre-series and series modules of the ATLAS EM barrel and end-cap calorimeter were exposed to electron, photon and pion beams. The performance of the calorimeter with respect to its finely segmented first sampling has been studied. The polar angle resolution has been found to be in the range 50-60 mrad/sqrt(E (GeV)). The neutral pion rejection has been measured to be about 3.5 for 90% photon selection efficiency at pT=50 GeV/c. Electron-pion separation studies have indicated that a pion fake rate of (0.07-0.5)% can be achieved while maintaining 90% electron identification efficiency for energies up to 40 GeV.Comment: 32 pages, 22 figures, to be published in NIM
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