8 research outputs found

    Creation and validation of the 4-item BriefPCS-chronic through methodological triangulation

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    © 2020 The Author(s). Background: The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is a widely used self-report tool to evaluate pain related catastrophizing. The PCS was developed using classical test theory and has been shown to be psychometrically sound among various populations. However, it\u27s current three subscales are rarely used in clinical practice, offering potential for an abbreviated version that reduces administrative burden and can be used to estimate full scale scores, yet is not bound by the inclusion of items from each subscale. Hence, the aim of the current study was to develop a unidimensional abbreviated version of the PCS through findings from qualitative, classical test theory, and newer Rasch analysis. Methods: The current cross-sectional study used data from the Quebec Pain Registry (n = 5646) to obtain PCS scores of people seeking care at tertiary chronic pain centres. To develop an abbreviated unidimensional tool, items were removed based on triangulation of qualitative review of each item and response, corrected item-total correlations, and Rasch analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the final remaining items to confirm the tool was assessing a single latent construct (catastrophizing). Fit was assessed using the cumulative fit index (CFI), Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), and root-mean-squared error of approximation (RMSEA). Results: After triangulation, a final abbreviated 4-item scale showed adequate model fit with a strong correlation (r \u3e 0.95) with the original scale and properties that were stable across age, sex, cause, and medicolegal status. Additionally, the brief version addressed some problematic wording on some items on the original scale. Both the original and new abbreviated tool were associated with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Brief Pain Inventory at the same magnitude. Conclusion: The abbreviated scale may allow for a decrease in administrator burden and greater clinical uptake when a quick screen for exaggerated negative orientation towards pain is needed

    Development and validation of the Pain Resilience and Optimism Scale (PROS)

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    Numerous self-report questionnaires have been used in pain research to explore patients\u27 experiences. However, these questionnaires often employ negatively worded items that can potentially worsen patients\u27 distress. In response to the emergence of positive psychology, this thesis aimed to develop a new questionnaire that adopts a positive and strengths-focused approach, incorporating resilience, to replace the negative items found in existing tools such as the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). First, the effectiveness of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in measuring resilience following trauma was assessed through a systematic review using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The review revealed that the CD-RISC may not adequately capture resilience in the context of trauma. Consequently, a new tool called the Post-traumatic Resilience Scale was theorized and developed to address these limitations. In line with the potential benefits of positive psychological factors such as optimism in mitigating the effects of trauma, the 2nd and 3rd studies of this thesis aimed to explore these factors within the framework of Post-traumatic Resilience and Optimism (PTRO). In developing the initial items for the prototype Pain Resilience and Optimism Scale (PROS), researchers reversed the polarity of 13 items from the widely used PCS, transforming them into positively worded items. Feedback from three patients with chronic pain contributed to the creation of the 13-item test version of the PROS. Validation of the PROS involved a sample of Canadian military veterans with chronic pain. The refined version of the scale consisted of eight items categorized into two subfactors: Pain Optimism (5 items) and Pain Resilience (3 items). The reduction in items aligns with previous findings that a shorter version of the PCS adequately measures pain catastrophizing. In conclusion, this thesis proposes the PROS as a new measurement tool for research and clinical use. The validation analyses demonstrate promising psychometric properties, although further research is needed for replication. Incorporating advanced measurement models such as Item Response Theory may enhance the reliability and validity of the PROS in evaluating pain resilience and optimism

    Identification of clinically-useful cut scores of the Traumatic Injuries Distress Scale (TIDS) for predicting rate of recovery following musculoskeletal trauma.

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    ObjectiveThe Traumatic Injuries Distress Scale (TIDS) is a 12-item self-report tool intended for prognostic risk phenotyping in people with acute musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. The initial validation study showed good associations with outcomes 12 weeks later in a cohort of 72 acutely injured patients from one region in Canada. This study aims to provide further clinical utility through identification of meaningful cut scores in a larger, mixed geography sample, and expands the prediction window from 12 to 52 weeks.MethodsData were drawn from databanks in London, Canada and Chicago, United States. Participants were recruited within 3 weeks of non-catastrophic MSK trauma and followed for 12 months. Using outcomes trajectories, the TIDS underwent linear regression-based analysis to predict 52-week outcomes, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves to identify discriminative accuracy and meaningful cut scores.ResultsN = 224 participants with acute trauma were followed and both %Interference and Pain Severity were captured at intake and 3 follow-ups to establish curvilinear recovery trajectories. The TIDS explained significant variance in both the interference and severity outcomes after controlling for sex, region of injury, and baseline scores. ROC analysis revealed significant discriminative accuracy for predicting both the trajectories and the distal outcomes over 52 weeks. The TIDS was more accurate for identifying the low-risk than high-risk patients.ConclusionThe TIDS is a useful tool for 'ruling out' high risk of poor outcome in a mixed sample of participants from two different countries.Impact statementThe TIDS will be a useful tool for clinicians to predict the rate of recovery by displaying meaningful cut-scores for their patients after an acute musculoskeletal injury. This could lead to reduced burden of care for low risk patients and more informed treatment options for higher risk patients

    Self-Assembled Triphenylphosphonium-Conjugated Dicyanostilbene Nanoparticles and Their Fluorescence Probes for Reactive Oxygen Species

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    We report self-assembled novel triphenylphosphonium-conjugated dicyanostilbene-based as selective fluorescence turn-on probes for 1O2 and ClO−. Mono- or di-triphenylphosphonium-conjugated dicyanostilbene derivatives 1 and 2 formed spherical structures with diameters of ca. 27 and 56.5 nm, respectively, through π-π interaction between dicyanostilbene groups. Self-assembled 1 showed strong fluorescent emission upon the addition of 1O2 and ClO− compared to other ROS (O2−, •OH, NO, TBHP, H2O2, GSH), metal ions (K+, Na+), and amino acids (cysteine and histidine). Upon addition of 1O2 and ClO−, the spherical structure of 1 changed to a fiber structure (8-nm wide; 300-nm long). Upon addition of 1O2 and ClO−, the chemical structural conversion of 1 was determined by FAB-Mass, NMR, IR and Zeta potential analysis, and the strong emission of the self-assembled 1 was due to an aggregation-induced emission enhancement. This self-assembled material was the first for selective ROS as a fluorescence turn-on probe. Thus, a nanostructure change-derived turn-on sensing strategy for 1O2 or ClO− may offer a new approach to developing methods for specific guest molecules in biological and environmental subjects

    Few-Shot Anomaly Detection via Personalization

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    Even with a plenty amount of normal samples, anomaly detection has been considered as a challenging machine learning task due to its one-class nature, i. e., the lack of anomalous samples in training time. It is only recently that a few-shot regime of anomaly detection became feasible in this regard, e. g., with a help from large vision-language pre-trained models such as CLIP, despite its wide applicability. In this paper, we explore the potential of large text-to-image generative models in performing few-shot industrial anomaly detection. Specifically, recent text-to-image models have shown unprecedented ability to generalize from few images to extract their common and unique concepts, and even encode them into a textual token to “personalize” the model: so-called textual inversion. Here, we question whether this personalization is specific enough to discriminate the given images from their potential anomalies, which are often, e. g., open-ended, local, and hard-to-detect. We observe that standard textual inversion exhibits a weaker understanding in localized details within objects, which is not enough for detecting industrial anomalies accurately. Thus, we explore the utilization of model personalization to address anomaly detection and propose Anomaly Detection via Personalization (ADP). ADP enables extracting fine-grained local details shared in the images with simple-yet an effective regularization scheme from the zero-shot transferability of CLIP. We also propose a self-tuning scheme to further optimize the performance of our detection pipeline, leveraging synthetic data generated from the personalized generative model. Our experiments show that the proposed inversion scheme could achieve state-of-the-art results on two industrial anomaly benchmarks, MVTec-AD and VisA, in the regime of few normal samples

    Obesity and Hyperglycemia in Korean Men with Klinefelter Syndrome: The Korean Endocrine Society Registry

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    BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity in Korean men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and the associated risk factors for obesity and hyperglycemia.MethodsData were collected retrospectively from medical records from 11 university hospitals in Korea between 1994 and 2014. Subjects aged ‚Č•18 years with newly diagnosed KS were enrolled. The following parameters were recorded at baseline before treatment: chief complaint, height, weight, fasting glucose level, lipid panel, blood pressure, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, karyotyping patterns, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.ResultsData were analyzed from 376 of 544 initially enrolled patients. The rate of the 47 XXY chromosomal pattern was 94.1%. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ‚Č•25 kg/m2) in Korean men with KS was 42.6%. The testosterone level was an independent risk factor for obesity and hyperglycemia.ConclusionObesity is common in Korean men with KS. Hypogonadism in patients with KS was associated with obesity and hyperglycemia