119 research outputs found

    Driver Licences, Diversionary Programs and Transport Justice for First Nations Peoples in Australia

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    In Australia, one significant cause of the imprisonment and disadvantage of First Nations people relates to transport injustice. First Nations people face obstacles in becoming lawful road users, particularly in relation to acquiring driver licences, with driving unlicensed a common pathway into the criminal justice system. This paper identifies that while some programs focus on increasing driver licensing for First Nations people, there are significant limitations in terms of coverage and access. Further, very few diversionary or support programs proactively address the intersection between First Nations people’s driver licensing and the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, it is argued that scope does exist within some state and territory criminal justice programs to enhance transport justice by assisting First Nations people to secure driver licensing. This paper highlights the need for accessible, available and culturally safe driver licencing support programs in First Nations communities led by First Nations people

    Safe system demonstration project in a remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community

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    This paper reports on key findings and recommendations of the first known application of a comprehensive Safe System audit in a remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community; commissioned by the Indigenous Road Safety Working Group with funding from Austroads. The audit was conducted in Bidyadanga WA in collaboration with the Bidyadanga Community Council during June-August 2010, including: review of policy, management and police records; physical observation of roads, speeds and vehicles; and interviews with community members and local stakeholders including regarding road user issues and vehicle access. Bidyadanga was found to have high quality roads and safe speeds within residential areas, with limited need for upgrades and new work; however, several issues were identified on roads to access the nearest town, including a high crash “blackspot” location. Access to safe vehicles was limited. Unlicensed driving, lack of child restraints, drink driving and fatigue were key road user concerns. Needs for across-government improvements in policy and management were identified. Cost effective actions were identified. This project demonstrated that application of the Safe System was feasible in a remote Aboriginal community, while lessons learned can be adapted and applied nationally to improve Aboriginal road safety

    Risky Driving by Recently Licensed Teens: Self-Reports and Simulated Performance

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    U.S. teens are overrepresented in motor vehicle crashes, with the majority due to driver error; however, causal pathways remain to be elucidated. This research aimed to identify driving performance factors that might underlie newly-licensed male teens’ risk. Surveys were conducted with 21 16-year-olds at the time of intermediate licensure. During the second month of licensure they completed drives in a high-fidelity simulator. Simulator scenarios allowed assessment of responses to yellow traffic lights changing to red and to a visual search task, for which previous data on older age groups of drivers were available. All teens had an A or B grade point average, previously found to be associated with lower crash and citation risk. Nonetheless, 71% reported risky driving in terms of prior unlicensed, unsupervised driving. In the simulator, 46% went through an intersection as the light turned red, compared to 33% of adults. In the visual search task, teens had shorter mean perception-reaction times and identified more targets than adults and older drivers, but similar to young drivers. Therefore, even teens with good grades, perceived to be less risky, were willing to take driving risks. Their driving performance suggests there may be subtle differences in the way recently-licensed teens drive that might predispose them to crashes. Further research of this nature can increase understanding of such differences and inform the development of more targeted intervention

    Enhancing higher-order skills education and assessment in a graduated motorcycle licensing system

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    Prior to 2016, motorcycle licensing in Victoria, Australia, required off-road (range) skillstesting only, focusing on vehicle-handling skills. The objective of this research was to developan education and assessment curriculum commensurate with best practice that included on-roadcomponents and increased focus on awareness, judgment, and decision-making skills. No singlebest-practice curriculum was identified in the published literature. Therefore, to guide developmentof a new curriculum, a best-practice novice driver education framework, Goals for Driver Education,was adapted into the Goals for Rider Education framework. Applying Training Needs Analysis,the target population of learner motorcyclists was identified as largely male and aged under30 years, with the target crash problem including a high proportion of single-vehicle loss-of-controlcrashes. Tailored content was developed based on exemplary Australian and international curricula,behaviour change theory, and adult learning principles; including transitioning from training tocoaching and from testing to competency-based assessment. The result is Victoria’s new MotorcycleGraduated Licensing System (M-GLS) education and assessment curriculum, comprising three stages:pre-learner (Motorcycle Permit Assessment), learner (Check Ride), and pre-licence (MotorcycleLicence Assessment). Subject to potential refinements and on-going evaluation, this work lays thefoundation for establishing a best-practice approach to novice motorcyclist education for licensure

    Development and evaluation of an on-ride motorcycle coaching program in Victoria: how well was VicRide implemented and received by the target novice motorcycle riders?

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    VicRoads initiated a large-scale trial of a newly developed ‘VicRide on-road coaching program’ forrecently licensed motorcyclists in Victoria. The George Institute for Global Health wascommissioned to evaluate VicRide primarily to determine its effectiveness in reducing crash ratesfor the target group via a randomised control trial. A process evaluation was also conducted toexamine program delivery in parallel with the outcome evaluation. The objective of this paper is topresent the process evaluation results. Data were sourced from the coaches, the program deliveryorganisation, and VicRide participants. Willingness to pay for VicRide was also obtained from thetarget novice motorcyclists. Overall the results suggest that VicRide was delivered as intended bythe design on most aspects. However, the trial also identified numerous barriers to achieve highcompletion rates for both the preparation activity and program attendance and VicRide as a roadsafety intervention was valued significantly less by program participants than control riders whohad not yet completed the program. Though the low completion rates may have negatively impactedthe program outcomes, the barriers to completion may also reflect that individualised programs suchas VicRide are practically challenging to standardise and implement as a state-wide intervention.These may be improved if all learning opportunities are contained within program attendance andthe program is made mandatory. Nevertheless, these considerations are meaningful only if andwhen VicRide and other similar programs demonstrate detectable road safety value including crashand casualty reductions, reduced risk taking behaviours and improved safety attitudes

    Does an on-road motorcycle coaching program reduce crashes in novice riders? A randomised control trial

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    OBJECTIVES: Motorcycle riding is increasing globally and confers a high risk of crash-related injury and death. There is community demand for investment in rider training programs but no high-quality evidence about its effectiveness in preventing crashes. This randomised trial of an on-road rider coaching program aimed to determine its effectiveness in reducing crashes in novice motorcycle riders. METHODS: Between May 2010 and October 2012, 2399 newly-licensed provisional riders were recruited in Victoria, Australia and completed a telephone interview before randomisation to intervention or control groups. Riders in the intervention group were offered an on-road motorcycle rider coaching program which involved pre-program activities, 4h riding and facilitated discussion in small groups with a riding coach. Outcome measures were collected for all participants via telephone interviews at 3 and 12 months after program delivery (or equivalent for controls), and via linkage to police-recorded crash and offence data. The primary outcome was a composite measure of police-recorded and self-reported crashes; secondary outcomes included traffic offences, near crashes, riding exposure, and riding behaviours and motivations. RESULTS: Follow-up was 89% at 3 months and 88% at 12 months; 60% of the intervention group completed the program. Intention-to-treat analyses conducted in 2014 indicated no effect on crash risk at 3 months (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.65-1.27) or 12 months (adjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.78-1.29). Riders in the intervention group reported increased riding exposure, speeding behaviours and rider confidence. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that this on-road motorcycle rider coaching program reduced the risk of crash, and we found an increase in crash-related risk factors

    Adolescents' orientations towards the future: An alternative approach to assessing personal goals

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    As personal goals continue to be emphasised in theories and research on motivation and future orientation, methods for assessing such goals have diversified. Research with adolescent students shows limitations in prevalent methodologies for eliciting and classifying the content of personal goals. The Future Time Perspective (FTP) model of Joseph Nuttin (1984, 1985) offers an alternative approach. The advantages of the FTP approach are demonstrated by examining the goal profiles of one student using both the FTP and a contrasting methodology (Seginer, 1988). This example is taken from a pilot study of 100 Year 7 and Year 11 secondary school students

    Recent developments in young driver education, training and licensing in Australia

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    Australian young driver education and training approaches have differed from the mandatory school-based programs found internationally; generally comprising voluntary programs conducted outside of licensing. This paper reports on recent developments pertaining to the pre-learner, learner, and provisional license stages. Given its important context, state-based graduated driver licensing systems are also reviewed. There has been a shift toward starting driver education younger (pre-learner), greater involvement of parents, and more school-based programs; many now conducted by licensing authorities. The majority of initiatives are yet to be evaluated, particularly relative to crash outcomes; however, some studies suggest other positive outcomes, including increased supervised practice and delayed licensure. Furthermore, the federal government is proceeding with plans for a national license-based program. Several jurisdictions have also announced the introduction of passenger and nighttime restrictions on provisional licenses. Together these initiatives offer promise of reductions in young driver-related fatalities and injuries in the very near future
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