799 research outputs found

    Biophysical Characterization and Expression Analysis of Kv1.3 Potassium Channel in Primary Human Leukemic B Cells

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    Background/Aims: Pharmacological inhibition of the potassium channel Kv1.3 has been shown to selectively kill B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here we aimed to biophysically characterize and compare Kv1.3 channel activity in B cells isolated either from healthy subjects or patients and investigated the mechanism accounting for the increased protein expression in B-CLL cells. Methods: Kv1.3 activity was measured by patch clamp, while expression of the channel protein was assessed by Western blot and FACS analysis. B-CLL cells were co-cultured with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and Kv1.3 inhibitor-induced apoptosis was assessed. Results: We demonstrate that Kv1.3 is highly expressed and is more active at resting membrane potential in human B-CLL cells than in healthy cells. Channel expression in pathologic cells decreased by the B-RAF kinase inhibitor PLX-4720, while it increased with Doxazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist. Kv1.3 inhibitors induced death in B-CLL cells also when co-cultured with MSC. Conclusion: Our results contribute to the characterization of B-CLL cells, as it shows that upregulation of Kv1.3 in pathologic B lymphocytes is linked to the oncogenic B-RAF signalling. We also conclude that Kv1.3 inhibitors represent a valuable tool to induce apoptosis of B-CLL cells even in the presence of MSC

    Targeting Brutons Tyrosine Kinase in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia at the Crossroad between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pro-survival Signals

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    Chemo immunotherapies for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) showed a positive impact on clinical outcome, but many patients relapsed or become refractory to the available treatments. The main goal of the researchers in CLL is the identification of specific targets in order to develop new therapeutic strategies to cure the disease. The B cell receptor-signalling pathway is necessary for survival of malignant B cells and its related molecules recently become new targets for therapy. Moreover, leukemic microenvironment delivers survival signals to neoplastic cells also overcoming the apoptotic effect induced by traditional drugs. In this context, the investigation of Bruton\u2019s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is useful in: i) dissecting CLL pathogenesis; ii) finding new therapeutic approaches striking simultaneously intrinsic as well as extrinsic pro-survival signals in CLL. This paper will review these main topics

    NK cells and CD38: Implication for (Immuno)Therapy in Plasma Cell Dyscrasias

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    Immunotherapy represents a promising new avenue for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, particularly with the availability of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) as anti-CD38 Daratumumab and Isatuximab and anti-SLAM-F7 Elotuzumab. Although a clear NK activation has been demonstrated for Elotuzumab, the effect of anti-CD38 mAbs on NK system is controversial. As a matter of fact, an initial reduction of NK cells number characterizes Daratumumab therapy, limiting the potential role of this subset on myeloma immunotherapy. In this paper we discuss the role of NK cells along with anti-CD38 therapy and their implication in plasma cell dyscrasias, showing that mechanisms triggered by anti-CD38 mAbs ultimately lead to the activation of the immune system against myeloma cell growth

    Benign TdT-positive cells in pediatric and adult lymph nodes: a potential diagnostic pitfall

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    Benign TdT-positive cells have been documented in a variety of non-hematopoietic tissues. Scant data are however available on their presence in non-neoplastic lymph nodes. This study is aimed to: (i) characterize the presence/distribution of benign TdT-positive cells in pediatric and adult reactive lymph nodes; (ii) define the phenotype and nature of such elements. This retrospective study considered 141 reactive lymph nodes from pediatric and adult patients without history of neoplastic disease. TdT-positive cells were characterized by immunohistochemical and morphometric analyses and their presence was correlated with the clinical-pathological features. The nature of TdT-positive cells was investigated by: (i) double immunostaining for early lymphoid cell markers; and (ii) assessment of TdT expression in fetal lymph nodes. Sparse TdT-positive cells were documented in all pediatric cases and in most (76%) adult lymph nodes. TdT-positive cell density was higher in children than adults (15.9/mm2 versus 8.6/mm2; P<.05). TdT positivity did not correlate with any clinical and histological parameter and double immunostaining disclosed a phenotype compatible with early lymphoid precursors (positivity for CD34, CD10 and variable expression of CD7). A very high TdT-positive cell density (802.4/mm2) was reported in all fetal lymph nodes. In conclusion, TdT-positive cells are a common finding in pediatric and adult lymph nodes. The interstitial distribution and low number of such cells allows for the differential diagnosis with precursor lymphoid neoplasms. The high density in fetal lymph nodes and the phenotype of such cells suggest their belonging to an immature lymphoid subset gradually decreasing with age

    Are T-LGL leukemia and NK-chronic lymphoproliferative disorder really two distinct diseases?

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    Mature Large Granular lymphocytes (LGL) disorders include a spectrum of conditions, ranging from polyclonal to clonal indolent and/or overt leukemic LGL proliferations. Most cases are represented by clonal expansions of TCRα/β+ LGL displaying a CD8+ phenotype with expression of cytotoxic T-cell antigens (CD57, CD16, TIA-1, perforin and granzyme B). Proliferations of CD3-CD16+ NK cells with a restricted patter of NK receptors are less common, usually comprising 15% of the cases. Main features are cytopenias, splenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Morphology, immunophenotyping and molecular analyses are crucial to establish a correct diagnosis of disease. According to the 2008 WHO classification, two separate entities account for the majority of cases, T-LGL leukemia and Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disease of NK cell (this latter still provisional). Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cells types i.e. T and NK cells, with specific genetic features and abnormalities, compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that a common pathogenic mechanism would be involved in both disorders. As a matter of fact, a foreign antigen driven clonal selection is considered the initial step in the mechanism ultimately leading to generation of both conditions. In this chapter we will discuss recent advances on the pathogenesis of chronic T and NK disorders of granular lymphocytes, challenging the current WHO classification on the opportunity to separate T and NK disorders, which are likely to represent two sides of the same coin

    Protein kinase CK2 is widely expressed in follicular, Burkitt and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and propels malignant B-cell growth.

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    Serine-threonine kinase CK2 is highly expressed and pivotal for survival and proliferation in multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma. Here, we investigated the expression of \u3b1 catalytic and \u3b2 regulatory CK2 subunits by immunohistochemistry in 57 follicular (FL), 18 Burkitt (BL), 52 diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and in normal reactive follicles. In silico evaluation of available Gene Expression Profile (GEP) data sets from patients and Western blot (WB) analysis in NHL cell-lines were also performed. Moreover, the novel, clinical-grade, ATP-competitive CK2-inhibitor CX-4945 (Silmitasertib) was assayed on lymphoma cells. CK2 was detected in 98.4% of cases with a trend towards a stronger CK2\u3b1 immunostain in BL compared to FL and DLBCL. No significant differences were observed between Germinal Center B (GCB) and non-GCB DLBCL types. GEP data and WB confirmed elevated CK2 mRNA and protein levels as well as active phosphorylation of specific targets in NHL cells. CX-4945 caused a dose-dependent growth-arresting effect on GCB, non-GCB DLBCL and BL cell-lines and it efficiently shut off phosphorylation of NF-\u3baB RelA and CDC37 on CK2 target sites. Thus, CK2 is highly expressed and could represent a suitable therapeutic target in BL, FL and DLBCL NHL

    Bendamustine plus rituximab is an effective first-line treatment in hairy cell leukemia variant: A report of three cases

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    Hairy cell leukemia variant (HCLv) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder classified as a provisional entity in the 2016 WHO Classification of Lymphoid Tumors. HCLv is characterized by unfavorable prognosis, low complete remission rates and limited disease control following classical hairy cell leukemia-based regimens. In this study, we report 3 cases of elderly patients with treatment-naive, TP53 un-mutated HCLv, who were effectively treated with four cycles of bendamustine plus rituximab. The regimen was completed in all the patients with acceptable toxicity. All patients achieved a complete clinical response with no evidence of residual disease at bone marrow biopsy and flow-cytometry examination. After a median follow-up of 19 months, the 3 subjects are still in complete remission. In this work, bendamustine plus rituximab proved to be an effective and feasible first-line treatment strategy for elderly patients with TP53 un-mutated HCLv

    Cross-talk between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) tumor B cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs): implications for neoplastic cell survival

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    Leukemic cells from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients interact with stromal cells of the surrounding microenvironment. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) represent the main population in CLL marrow stroma, which may play a key role for disease support and progression. In this study we evaluated whether MSCs influence in vitro CLL cell survival. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of 46 CLL patients and were characterized by flow cytometry analysis. Following co-culture of MSCs and leukemic B cells, we demonstrated that MSCs were able to improve leukemic B cell viability, this latter being differently dependent from the signals coming from MSCs. In addition, we found that the co-culture of MSCs with leukemic B cells induced an increased production of IL-8, CCL4, CCL11, and CXCL10 chemokines.As far as drug resistance is concerned, MSCs counteract the cytotoxic effect of Fludarabine/Cyclophosphamide administration in vivo, whereas they do not protect CLL cells from the apoptosis induced by the kinase inhibitors Bafetinib and Ibrutinib. The evidence that leukemic clones are conditioned by environmental stimuli suggest new putative targets for therapy in CLL patients

    Prosurvival autophagy is regulated by protein kinase CK1 alpha in multiple myeloma

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    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a tumor of plasma cells (PCs). Due to the intense immunoglobulin secretion, PCs are prone to endoplasmic reticulum stress and activate several stress-managing pathways, including autophagy. Indeed, autophagy deregulation is maladaptive for MM cells, resulting in cell death. CK1α, a pro-survival kinase in MM, has recently been involved as a regulator of the autophagic flux and of the transcriptional competence of the autophagy-related transcription factor FOXO3a in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of CK1α in autophagy in MM. To study the autophagic flux we generated clones of MM cell lines expressing the mCherry-eGFP-LC3B fusion protein. We observed that CK1 inhibition with the chemical ATP-competitive CK1 α/δ inhibitor D4476 resulted in an impaired autophagic flux, likely due to an alteration of lysosomes acidification. However, D4476 caused the accumulation of the transcription factor FOXO3a in the nucleus, and this was paralleled by the upregulation of mRNA coding for autophagic genes. Surprisingly, silencing of CK1α by RNA interference triggered the autophagic flux. However, FOXO3a did not shuttle into the nucleus and the transcription of autophagy-related FOXO3a-dependent genes was not observed. Thus, while the chemical inhibition with the dual CK1α/δ inhibitor D4476 induced cell death as a consequence of an accumulation of ineffective autophagic vesicles, on the opposite, CK1α silencing, although it also determined apoptosis, triggered a full activation of the early autophagic flux, which was then not supported by the upregulation of autophagic genes. Taken together, our results indicate that the family of CK1 kinases may profoundly influence MM cells survival also through the modulation of the autophagic pathway
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