8,239 research outputs found

    Analysis of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in exon 1 of kappa-casein gene (CSN3) in Martina Franca donkey breed

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    The aim of this study is to assess genetic polymorphism at two loci in the exon 1 of the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) in Martina Franca donkey breed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Martina Franca donkey was derived from the Catalan donkey brought to Apulia at the time of the Spanish rule. This donkey is tall and well built and has good temperament. Both considered loci were found to be monomorphic in the considered population. At CSN3/PstI locus, all the animals were genotyped as AA since no AG and GG animals were found in the population. A similar result was found at CSN3/BseYI locus: all the donkeys were monomorphic and genotyped as AA. As a consequence, only one out of nine possible combined genotype (AAAA) was detected.Key words: Martina Franca donkey, kappa-casein gene (CSN3), gene polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)

    Analysis of two Pit-1 gene polymorphisms: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distribution patterns in Podolica cattle breed

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    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcription factor responsible for pituitary development and hormone expression in mammals. Pit-1 is a member of the POU domain containing proteins, a group of transcriptional regulators with a critical role in cell differentiation and proliferation. It was shown that this group of proteins control the transcription of the growth hormone (GH), the prolactin (PRL), the thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit (TSH-β), the GHRH receptor genes and the Pit-1 gene itself. In this study, the Pit-1/HinfI and Pit-1/TaqI loci were investigated using PCR-RFLP approach in a sample of 104 Podolica cattle. All the possible genotypes for both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. The allelic frequencies at Pit-1/TaqI locus were 0.76 (G) and 0.24 (A), while those at Pit-1/HinfI locus were 0.70 (B) and 0.30 (A). Combined genotypic frequencies and possible haplotypes frequencies were also reported. Moreover, some population genetic indexes, namely: gene heterozygosity (He), gene homozygosity (Ho), effective allele numbers (Ne), fixation index (FIS) and polymorphism information content (PIC) were calculated.Key words: POU1F1 gene, Podolica breed, PCR-RFLP

    DELPHES 3, A modular framework for fast simulation of a generic collider experiment

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    The version 3.0 of the DELPHES fast-simulation is presented. The goal of DELPHES is to allow the simulation of a multipurpose detector for phenomenological studies. The simulation includes a track propagation system embedded in a magnetic field, electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, and a muon identification system. Physics objects that can be used for data analysis are then reconstructed from the simulated detector response. These include tracks and calorimeter deposits and high level objects such as isolated electrons, jets, taus, and missing energy. The new modular approach allows for greater flexibility in the design of the simulation and reconstruction sequence. New features such as the particle-flow reconstruction approach, crucial in the first years of the LHC, and pile-up simulation and mitigation, which is needed for the simulation of the LHC detectors in the near future, have also been implemented. The DELPHES framework is not meant to be used for advanced detector studies, for which more accurate tools are needed. Although some aspects of DELPHES are hadron collider specific, it is flexible enough to be adapted to the needs of electron-positron collider experiments.Comment: JHEP 1402 (2014

    Enhancement of sustainable bioenergy production by valorising tomato residues: A GIS-based model

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    In order to increase the utilization of renewable energy sources, the biomethane production through anaerobic digestion has notably developed over the last years. Although, it is worldwide recognized, that valorising waste resources (i.e., by-products) is an opportunity to improve the efficiency rate of the agro-industrial chains, by reducing economic and environmental impact, it is necessary to support the strategic planning development of a future sustainable biomethane chain in line to circular economy. In this study, by adopting network information technologies, the importance of a strategic planning for sustainable developing biomethane sector was highlighted, since feedstocks logistic and supply phase is a key-aspect of any bioenergy project. The developed Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – methodology, that could be applied in any territorial area considering any type of biomass, allowed to define suitable locations for allocating new anaerobic digestion plants with the aim of developing a sustainable valorisation of tomato residues, by minimising the economic and environmental impacts. The achieved results provided advanced knowledge for the literature on the topic, helping to develop an operational GIS-tool for defining sustainable strategies for planning new plants, and proved that the development of integrated approach to define sustainable strategies for resource management along the whole supply chain is crucial

    Assessment of tomato peels suitable for producing biomethane within the context of circular economy: A gis-based model analysis

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    Biomass is seen as one of the most dominant future renewable energy sources. In detail, agro-industrial by-products represent a cheap, renewable, and abundant feedstock useful for several new products, including biochemical, biomaterials, and above all biogas, which are taking on an ever-increasing role in Italy. In this context, the tomato chain was analysed aiming at estimating the amount of processed tomato and the related waste production as a new suitable resource for producing biofuel as a new frontier within the context of a circular economy. Due the importance of the tomato industry, this research aims at filling gaps in the knowledge of the production and yield of the by-products that are useful as biomass for energy use in those territorial areas where the biomethane sector is still developing. This aim could be relevant for planning the sustainable development of the biomethane sector by reducing both soil consumption for dedicated energy crops and GHG emissions coming from the biomass logistic supply. The achieved results show the localization of territorial areas highly characterized by this kind of biomass. Therefore, it would be desirable that the future policies of development in the biomethane sector consider the availability and the distribution of these suitable biomasses within the territory

    Sustainable rearing for kid meat production in Southern Italy marginal areas: A comparison among three genotypes

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    Sustainable goat breeding plays an important role in the economy of marginal areas. The present study aimed to compare performances and meat quality traits in kids of a native Apulian genotype (Garganica) in comparison with two Mediterranean breeds (Maltese and Derivata di Siria). Kids suckled dam milk until they were 21 (±2) days old, hence three groups of 12 male kids per each genotype were made. The kids received a pelleted feed ad libitum in addition to dam milk and were slaughtered at 60 days of age. The Maltese kids showed the lowest net cold-dressing percentage, with statistical differences compared to Garganica and Derivata di Siria. Meat obtained from Garganica kids showed a rosy color due to a significantly lower a* index and were also more tender since a lower WBS was recorded in comparison with the other two genotypes. As for the nutritional value of meat, the best n-6/n-3 ratio was found for the Derivata di Siria breed. In conclusion, Garganica kid meat showed the lowest content of SFA and atherogenic index, with potential beneficial effects for human health

    FORCE- AND POWER-TIME RELATIONSHIP,EMG RESPONSES IN CONCENTRIG AND ISOMETRIC CONDITIONS,EFFECTS OF TRAINING AND INDIVIDUAL CRARACTERISTICS

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    Introduction The relationship between EHG (temporal pattern, IEMG, power spectra ) and the biomechanical parameter in isometric and dynamic muscle tension represents an essential method in the analysis of the specificity of training effects and of the individual characteristics in motor control modelling and in practical motor learning. METHODS Force-time, power-time relationships under concentric and isometric conditions (MVC) with and without preloading were determined. For EHG purpose, surface electrodes (O= 5 mm; interelectrode distance 40 mm) were placed over the belly of each muscle (Tric.br.;Bic.br.; Delt.an.; Pect.ma.). Bipolar myoelectrical potentials were recorded with the passive electrode placed between the two actives: signals were preamplified and band-pass filtered (CMRRT 70 db, BP= 10 Hz- 1 KHz: Zin=1,5 MR. gain= 1000). EMG signals and the force were digitized on-line with a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. For time structure analysis EMG signals were full-wave rectified and bandpass filtered (20-70 Hz) to obtain envelop curve patterns of each muscle. Power spectra analysis (median frequency MF) were performed using 1024 and pl2 data points. 3 groups (n=4) of sport students were involved in the investigation. Subjects performed a 8 week training period under different loading conditions. RESULTS # In the concentric tasks subjects show individual strategies in the muscular coordination patterns dependent on the load intensity. # Differences in the muscular interactivity pattern are not necessarily matching similar variation in the mechanical output. # For increasing loads there is a linear relationship between muscular activation level and mechanical power output. # In the power spectra, trends are consistent but also discontinuous. Median frequency could possibly indicate that some subjects have resources in motor units recruitment . # Other considerations are discussed referring to the muscular activation and the isometric MVC under preloading conditions

    Camelina sativa (L. Crantz) Fresh Forage Productive Performance and Quality at Different Vegetative Stages: Effects of Dietary Supplementation in Ionica Goats on Milk Quality

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    The research meant to study the productive performances of Camelina sativa and the effects of feeding Camelina fresh forage harvested during five phenological stages (I: main stem elongation; II: maximum stem elongation: III: inflorescence appearance; IV: flowering; V: fruit set visible) on the yield, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk from autochthonous Ionica goats. Goats were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 15) that received a traditional forage mixture (Control) or Camelina forage harvested at different stages (CAM). The field experiment was conducted in two years; no significant differences between years were recorded for any of the Camelina production traits. The total biomass increased (p < 0.05) from phase I (1.4 t/ha) to phase V (5.2 t/ha). The distribution of stem, leaves and pod also changed during growth, showing a significant increase of stem from 40.8 to 45.6% and of pod from 0 to 19.4%, whereas leaves decreased from 59.2 to 35.1%. The milk yield and chemical composition were unaffected by the diet, while supplementation with Camelina forage increased milk CLA content (on average 1.14 vs. 0.78%). A markedly higher concentration of PUFAs was found in milk from goats fed Camelina harvested during the last three phenological stages. The index of thrombogenicity of milk from the CAM fed goats was significantly lower compared to the control group. In conclusion, Camelina sativa is a multi-purpose crop that may be successfully cultivated in Southern Italy regions and used as fresh forage for goat feeding. Milk obtained from Camelina fed goats showed satisfactory chemical and fatty acid composition, with potential benefits for human health

    Dietary supplementation with camelina sativa (L. crantz) forage in autochthonous ionica goats: Effects on milk and caciotta cheese chemical, fatty acid composition and sensory properties

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    The research studied the effects of dietary supplementation with Camelina sativa fresh forage on the chemical and fatty acid composition of milk and Caciotta cheese, and its sensory properties. Twenty Ionica goats were randomly assigned to the following two groups (n = 10): the control received a traditional forage mixture (Avena sativa, 70%; Vicia sativa, 20%; Trifolium spp., 10%), while the experimental group was given Camelina sativa fresh forage (CAM). All of the dams grazed on pasture and received a commercial feed (500 g/head/day) at housing. The milk from the CAM group showed a higher (p < 0.05) content of dry matter, fat, lactose and concentrations of C6:0, C11:0, C14:0, C18:2 n-6, CLA and PUFA, while lower (p < 0.05) amounts of C12:0, C18:0 and saturated long chain FA (SLCFA). The Caciotta cheese from the CAM group showed a greater (p < 0.05) content of n-6 FA and n-6/n-3 ratio, although close to four, thus resulting adequate under the nutritional point of view. The overall liking, odour, taste, hardness, solubility and “goaty” flavour were better (p < 0.05) in the CAM cheeses. Further investigation would be advisable in order to evaluate the effect of feeding Camelina forage obtained from different phenological stages, and the application of ensiling techniques
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