7,586 research outputs found

    Spin-Polarization Response Functions in High-Energy (e,e'p) Reactions

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    Spin-polarization response functions are examined for high-energy (e,ep)(\vec{e},e'\vec{p}) reaction by computing the full 18 response functions for the proton kinetic energy Tp=T_{p'}= 0.515 GeV and 3.179 GeV with an 16O target. The Dirac eikonal formalism is applied to account for the final-state interactions. The formalism is found to yield the response functions in good agreement with those calculated by the partial-wave expansion method at 0.515 GeV. We identify the response functions that depend on the spin-orbital potential in the final-state interactions, but not on the central potential. Dependence on the Dirac- or Pauli-type current of the nucleon is investigated in the helicity-dependent response functions, and the normal-component polarization of the knocked-out proton, PnP_n, is computed.Comment: 22 pages, Latex, figures available at ftp://ftp.krl.caltech.edu/pub/users/rseki/it

    Magnetic digital flop of ferroelectric domain with fixed spin chirality in a triangular lattice helimagnet

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    Ferroelectric properties in magnetic fields of varying magnitude and direction have been investigated for a triangular-lattice helimagnet CuFe1-xGaxO2 (x=0.035). The magnetoelectric phase diagrams were deduced for magnetic fields along [001], [110], and [1-10] direction, and the in-plane magnetic field was found to induce the rearrangement of six possible multiferroic domains. Upon every 60-degree rotation of in-plane magnetic field around the c-axis, unique 120-degree flop of electric polarization occurs as a result of the switch of helical magnetic q-vector. The chirality of spin helix is always conserved upon the q-flop. The possible origin is discussed in the light of the stable structure of multiferroic domain wall.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures. Accepted in Phys. Rev. Let

    Impurity-doping induced ferroelectricity in frustrated antiferromagnet CuFeO2

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    Dielectric responses have been investigated on the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet CuFeO2 and its site-diluted analogs CuFe1-xAlxO2 (x=0.01 and 0.02) with and without application of magnetic field. We have found a ferroelectric behavior at zero magnetic field for x=0.02. At any doping level, the onset field of the ferroelectricity always coincides with that of the noncollinear magnetic structure while the transition field dramatically decreases to zero field with Al doping. The results imply the further possibility of producing the ferroelectricity by modifying the frustrated spin structure in terms of site-doping and external magnetic field.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Monoid automata for displacement context-free languages

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    In 2007 Kambites presented an algebraic interpretation of Chomsky-Schutzenberger theorem for context-free languages. We give an interpretation of the corresponding theorem for the class of displacement context-free languages which are equivalent to well-nested multiple context-free languages. We also obtain a characterization of k-displacement context-free languages in terms of monoid automata and show how such automata can be simulated on two stacks. We introduce the simultaneous two-stack automata and compare different variants of its definition. All the definitions considered are shown to be equivalent basing on the geometric interpretation of memory operations of these automata.Comment: Revised version for ESSLLI Student Session 2013 selected paper

    Magnetic-field induced competition of two multiferroic orders in a triangular-lattice helimagnet MnI2

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    Magnetic and dielectric properties with varying magnitude and direction of magnetic field H have been investigated for a triangular lattice helimagnet MnI2. The in-plane electric polarization P emerges in the proper screw magnetic ground state below 3.5 K, showing the rearrangement of six possible multiferroic domains as controlled by the in-plane H. With every 60-degree rotation of H around the [001]-axis, discontinuous 120-degree flop of P-vector is observed as a result of the flop of magnetic modulation vector q. With increasing the in-plane H above 3 T, however, the stable q-direction changes from q|| to q||, leading to a change of P-flop patterns under rotating H. At the critical field region (~3 T), due to the phase competition and resultant enhanced q-flexibility, P-vector smoothly rotates clockwise twice while H-vector rotates counter-clockwise once.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Accepted in Physical Review Letter

    Effective Dispute Resolution in United States-Japan Commercial Transactions Perspectives

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    This article seeks to acquaint the United States businessman and his legal counsel with the Japanese perspective, providing a greater level of understanding that would permit a more satisfying and effective conclusion to the dispute resolution process. The author\u27s frequent visits to Japan, his years of representing Japanese individuals and corporations and his study of treatises by noted authorities, identified in the footnotes, are sources for the opinions and perspectives presented in this article. It is hoped that this article will be particularly useful in providing an over- view to those who have not had extensive previous contact with Japan, its laws, and its enterprises