113 research outputs found

    Variable T-Tubule Density and Organization in Rat Atrial Cardiomyocytes

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    Reference gene alternatives to Gapdh in rodent and human heart failure gene expression studies

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive method for mRNA quantification, but requires invariant expression of the chosen reference gene(s). In pathological myocardium, there is limited information on suitable reference genes other than the commonly used <it>Gapdh </it>mRNA and <it>18S </it>ribosomal RNA. Our aim was to evaluate and identify suitable reference genes in human failing myocardium, in rat and mouse post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) heart failure and across developmental stages in fetal and neonatal rat myocardium.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The abundance of <it>Arbp</it>, <it>Rpl32</it>, <it>Rpl4</it>, <it>Tbp</it>, <it>Polr2a</it>, <it>Hprt1</it>, <it>Pgk1</it>, <it>Ppia </it>and <it>Gapdh </it>mRNA and <it>18S </it>ribosomal RNA in myocardial samples was quantified by RT-qPCR. The expression variability of these transcripts was evaluated by the geNorm and Normfinder algorithms and by a variance component analysis method. Biological variability was a greater contributor to sample variability than either repeated reverse transcription or PCR reactions.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The most stable reference genes were <it>Rpl32</it>, <it>Gapdh </it>and <it>Polr2a </it>in mouse post-infarction heart failure, <it>Polr2a</it>, <it>Rpl32 </it>and <it>Tbp </it>in rat post-infarction heart failure and <it>Rpl32 </it>and <it>Pgk1 </it>in human heart failure (ischemic disease and cardiomyopathy). The overall most stable reference genes across all three species was <it>Rpl32 </it>and <it>Polr2a</it>. In rat myocardium, all reference genes tested showed substantial variation with developmental stage, with <it>Rpl4 </it>as was most stable among the tested genes.</p

    Deranged sodium to sudden death

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    In February 2014, a group of scientists convened as part of the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium to bring together experimental and mathematical modelling perspectives and discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. This paper summarizes the topics of presentation and discussion from the symposium, with a focus on the role of aberrant sodium channels and abnormal sodium homeostasis in cardiac arrhythmias and pharmacotherapy from the subcellular scale to the whole heart. Two following papers focus on Na鈦 channel structure, function and regulation, and Na鈦/Ca虏鈦 exchange and Na鈦/K鈦 ATPase. The UC Davis Cardiovascular Symposium is a biannual event that aims to bring together leading experts in subfields of cardiovascular biomedicine to focus on topics of importance to the field. The focus on Na鈦 in the 2014 symposium stemmed from the multitude of recent studies that point to the importance of maintaining Na鈦 homeostasis in the heart, as disruption of homeostatic processes are increasingly identified in cardiac disease states. Understanding how disruption in cardiac Na鈦-based processes leads to derangement in multiple cardiac components at the level of the cell and to then connect these perturbations to emergent behaviour in the heart to cause disease is a critical area of research. The ubiquity of disruption of Na鈦 channels and Na鈦 homeostasis in cardiac disorders of excitability and mechanics emphasizes the importance of a fundamental understanding of the associated mechanisms and disease processes to ultimately reveal new targets for human therapy.Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculare

    Attenuated Fatigue in Slow Twitch Skeletal Muscle during Isotonic Exercise in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

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    During isometric contractions, slow twitch soleus muscles (SOL) from rats with chronic heart failure (chf) are more fatigable than those of sham animals. However, a muscle normally shortens during activity and fatigue development is highly task dependent. Therefore, we examined the development of skeletal muscle fatigue during shortening (isotonic) contractions in chf and sham-operated rats. Six weeks following coronary artery ligation, infarcted animals were classified as failing (chf) if left ventricle end diastolic pressure was >15mmHg. During isoflurane anaesthesia, SOL with intact blood supply was stimulated (1s on 1s off) at 30Hz for 15 min and allowed to shorten isotonically against a constant afterload. Muscle temperature was maintained at 37掳C. In resting muscle, maximum isometric force (Fmax) and the concentrations of ATP and CrP were not different in the two groups. During stimulation, Fmax and the concentrations declined in parallel sham and chf. Fatigue, which was evident as reduced shortening during stimulation, was also not different in the two groups. The isometric force decline was fitted to a bi-exponential decay equation. Both time constants increased transiently and returned to initial values after approximately 200 s of the fatigue protocol. This resulted in a transient rise in baseline tension between stimulations, although this effect which was less prominent in chf than sham. Myosin light chain 2s phosphorylation declined in both groups after 100 s of isotonic contractions, and remained at this level throughout 15 min of stimulation. In spite of higher energy demand during isotonic than isometric contractions, both shortening capacity and rate of isometric force decline were as well or better preserved in fatigued SOL from chf rats than in sham. This observation is in striking contrast to previous reports which have employed isometric contractions to induce fatigue

    Multiple Causes of Fatigue during Shortening Contractions in Rat Slow Twitch Skeletal Muscle

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    Fatigue in muscles that shorten might have other causes than fatigue during isometric contractions, since both cross-bridge cycling and energy demand are different in the two exercise modes. While isometric contractions are extensively studied, the causes of fatigue in shortening contractions are poorly mapped. Here, we investigate fatigue mechanisms during shortening contractions in slow twitch skeletal muscle in near physiological conditions. Fatigue was induced in rat soleus muscles with maintained blood supply by in situ shortening contractions at 37掳C. Muscles were stimulated repeatedly (1 s on/off at 30 Hz) for 15 min against a constant load, allowing the muscle to shorten and perform work. Fatigue and subsequent recovery was examined at 20 s, 100 s and 15 min exercise. The effects of prior exercise were investigated in a second exercise bout. Fatigue developed in three distinct phases. During the first 20 s the regulatory protein Myosin Light Chain-2 (slow isoform, MLC-2s) was rapidly dephosphorylated in parallel with reduced rate of force development and reduced shortening. In the second phase there was degradation of high-energy phosphates and accumulation of lactate, and these changes were related to slowing of muscle relengthening and relaxation, culminating at 100 s exercise. Slowing of relaxation was also associated with increased leak of calcium from the SR. During the third phase of exercise there was restoration of high-energy phosphates and elimination of lactate, and the slowing of relaxation disappeared, whereas dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening prevailed. Prior exercise improved relaxation parameters in a subsequent exercise bout, and we propose that this effect is a result of less accumulation of lactate due to more rapid onset of oxidative metabolism. The correlation between dephosphorylation of MLC-2s and reduced shortening was confirmed in various experimental settings, and we suggest MLC-2s as an important regulator of muscle shortening. Copyright 2013 Hortemo et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
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