4,689 research outputs found

    A prospective observational study on drug safety monitoring and Pharmacoeconomics in patients with locally advanced unresectable NSCLC in a tertiary care hospital

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    Background: Lung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women. The study was aimed at learning and comparing the toxicities of various chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of carcinoma lung, which will help in the implementation of counter measures to avoid development of toxicities, with a constant vigil on the patients during chemotherapeutic cycles. This study also aimed at searching into the added economic burden to the unfortunate patient, who is already suffering from a deadly disease. Study also targeted at evaluating the performance status of the patients receiving the chemotherapy.Methods: The Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) data was collected from 40 patients receiving chemotherapy for locally advanced unresectable carcinoma lung from the cancer wards of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 2 months. ADRs were graded according to WHO guidelines and their performance statuses were assessed using the Zubrod’s performance scale. Cost analysis of chemotherapeutic regimens was also carried out.Results: On comparison, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy were significantly more common with carboplatin-paclitaxel combination compared to other regimens (p value<0.005). Cost analysis reveals that the most commonly employed carboplatin-paclitaxel combination is more affordable when compared to the newer highly expensive agents but is costlier than cisplatin based chemotherapy. Also, carboplatin-paclitaxel combination offers a reasonably good performance status.Conclusions: Thus, carboplatin-paclitaxel combination is the preferred regimen for palliation in advanced NSCLC, especially in the older patients

    Phase Transition in Na2MoO4Ceramics

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    Sperm recovery and IVF outcome after surgical sperm retrieval in azoospermia: our experience

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    Background: In the last decade, male factor infertility has been recognized as a significant global problem, which is on an increase. Till date, very few options are available for ameliorating male factor infertility. Development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionized the treatment of males with very low sperm counts or with poor quality sperm. However, patients with a diagnosis of azoospermia had no option but to resort to adoption or use of donor sperm. The clinical management of men with azoospermia seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. The older approaches denied such couple the possibility of having own genetic children. Surgical sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection have successfully transformed the treatment of male infertility so that now most of the men can father their own children. The aim of this study is to present the outcome of IVF with surgically retrieved sperm from azoospermic men.Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of 100 cycles using surgically retrieved sperm. Outcome measures were fertilization rate (FR) and implantation rate (IR) per transfer.Results: Sperm retrieval rate in our study was 76% when Per cutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are combined. Our data demonstrated similar outcome between the use of epididymal or testicular sperm in men with azoospermic. There was no statistical difference concerning fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate between ICSI with surgically retrieved sperm and ejaculated sperms.Conclusions: Surgical sperm retrieval is a feasible and successful procedure. Spermatozoa can be retrieved from the testis in up to 76% of patients, even in cases with severe disorders of spermatogenesis and deranged hormonal profile. Comprehensive genetic counseling is important for infertile couples deciding for surgical sperm retrieval, since genetic disorders, as yet undetected, may be passed on to the following generation with multiplying variety.

    Pattern of management of febrile neutropenia among breast cancer patients treated with different chemotherapeutic regimens

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    Background: Breast cancer is one of the common malignancies in females. Chemotherapy with Adriamycin and Cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by the Docetaxel (AC-T, Regimen-I), AC followed by Docetaxel and Carboplatin (AC-T+Cr, Regimen-II) and AC followed by Docetaxel and Trastuzumab (AC-T+Tr, Regimen-III) are commonly given for treatment. These cause myelosuppression and febrile neutropenia and need necessary interventions.Methods: This is a prospective open labelled observational comparative study to evaluate the antibiotic usage needed to treat sepsis following febrile neutropenia among breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with regimen I, II and III. All patients received prophylactic Pegfilgrastim / Filgrastim. Antibiotics used and days in intensive care unit (ICU) in all the 8 cycles of chemotherapy were recorded. 38 patients in Regimen I, 40 patients in Regimen II and 46 patients in Regimen III completed the study and were included in the statistical analysis.Results: In regimen II, following cycle 2 of chemotherapy, none of the patients needed antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic use was maximum, following cycle 1of chemotherapy in regimen I and III, maximum number of antibiotics prescribed were 7. Number of days of ICU care needed for regimen II patients following 3rd cycle of chemotherapy was 3.5±3.5 days. No ICU care was needed for regimen III patients, following cycles 2, 3 and for regimen II following cycle 7.Conclusions: Febrile neutropenia produced by chemotherapy were effectively treated with intravenous antibiotics in ICU for an average of 2-3 days. No mortality was associated with febrile neutropenia and all patients were recovered

    A cross sectional study to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of rational antibiotic prescription among resident doctors

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    Background: Irrational prescription is a major contributor to the antimicrobial resistance. Resident doctors are the major focus of interventional programs aimed at rational prescription of antibiotics. So, their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding rational antibiotic prescription need to be assessed to plan future strategies.Methods: A questionnaire based cross sectional study among interns and resident doctors of a Government Medical College was conducted. Questionnaire consisted of questions to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of resident doctors in rational antibiotic prescriptions and multiple-choice questions to assess practice of hospital antibiotic policy.Results: 80 participants were enrolled in the study. All participants responded to yes or no questions and 47 answered multiple choice questions. 40% were aware of the current hospital antibiotic policy and 29% knew the term antibiotic stewardship. Only 15% were confident in their knowledge on antimicrobial resistance. 87.5% think there is no use in prescribing an antibiotic in common cold. 36.3% overprescribes antibiotics in their daily practice. Only 32.5% practiced de-escalation. 90% were educating patients regarding correct use of antibiotics. 90% send samples for culture and sensitivity but only 22.2% waited for results to start antibiotics.Conclusions: There is a need for approaches that includes implementation of antibiotic policy and to plan for effective teaching programs regarding antibiotic resistance and importance of rational prescription of antibiotics which can improve the quality of antibiotic prescription and minimize antibiotic resistance

    Handling the Psychological Distress of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Feasibility of Group Work Approach

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    Autism Spectrum Disorders are pervasive developmental disorders affecting many children today. Parenting a child with special needs, such as children with autism, is very taxing, as they need intensive and life-long intervention in diverse areas. This paper is an attempt to assess the need of those parents of children with autism and to develop an intervention programme to take care of the psychosocial issues. The study had two phases. In the first phase 120 parents of children with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed using a semi structured interview schedule and GHQ 28. In the second phase, an intervention module was prepared and implemented with 20 parents. The results show that the mean psychological distress was significantly higher for mothers compared to fathers. The scores on subscales show that mothers have higher level of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and depression compared to fathers. The pre and post analysis of the group intervention shows that there is a drop in the level of distress and increase in the awareness on child’s illness in parents after the group intervention. The findings show that addressing parental needs in a group setting can be very effective and beneficial in helping parents reduce their distress levels and hence making them better equipped to look after their child with a disability like autism

    Statistical thermodynamics for a non-commutative special relativity: Emergence of a generalized quantum dynamics

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    There ought to exist a description of quantum field theory which does not depend on an external classical time. To achieve this goal, in a recent paper we have proposed a non-commutative special relativity in which space-time and matter degrees of freedom are treated as classical matrices with arbitrary commutation relations, and a space-time line element is defined using a trace. In the present paper, following the theory of Trace Dynamics, we construct a statistical thermodynamics for the non-commutative special relativity, and show that one arrives at a generalized quantum dynamics in which space and time are non-classical and have an operator status. In a future work, we will show how standard quantum theory on a classical space-time background is recovered from here.Comment: 21 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1106.091