53 research outputs found

    Ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging using gradient pre-equalization and compressed sensing.

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    Ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging is a well-known technique used in medical MRI, however, the implementation of the sequence remains non-trivial. This paper introduces UTE for non-medical applications and outlines a method for the implementation of UTE to enable accurate slice selection and short acquisition times. Slice selection in UTE requires fast, accurate switching of the gradient and r.f. pulses. Here a gradient "pre-equalization" technique is used to optimize the gradient switching and achieve an effective echo time of 10μs. In order to minimize the echo time, k-space is sampled radially. A compressed sensing approach is used to minimize the total acquisition time. Using the corrections for slice selection and acquisition along with novel image reconstruction techniques, UTE is shown to be a viable method to study samples of cork and rubber with a shorter signal lifetime than can typically be measured. Further, the compressed sensing image reconstruction algorithm is shown to provide accurate images of the samples with as little as 12.5% of the full k-space data set, potentially permitting real time imaging of short T2(*) materials.HTF would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Gates-Cambridge Trust and all authors of the EPSRC (EP/K008218/1). In addition, we would like to thank SoftPoint Industries Inc. for providing samples of rubber.This version is final published version, distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 2.0. This can also be viewed on the publisher's website at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090780714001840

    Surface diffusion in catalysts probed by APGSTE NMR

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    In this work we report the application of a recently developed experimental protocol using Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to simultaneously assess bulk pore and surface diffusion coefficients in liquid saturated porous catalysts. This method has been developed to study solvent effects on the diffusion of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in mesoporous 1 wt% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst trilobes. The selection of solvents used in this work is known to have a complex effect on reaction rates and hence catalyst performance in heterogeneous liquid phase catalysis. Here, we report the bulk pore and surface diffusion characteristics of MEK, water and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in 1 wt% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst trilobes. The results show that the physicochemical interactions of molecules in the porous catalyst matrix are very different for the different molecules. We also find that the mobility of water appears to be affected strongest by the catalyst surface


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    Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging was used to measure the time-averaged voidage and particle velocity in a 3D gas-solid fluidized bed. Two different distributors were used. The mass-flux through a horizontal plane was calculated by combining the local voidage and particle velocity measurements. Based on the conservation of mass it was possible to give an error in the combined voidage and particle velocity measurements. It was found that the error in the mass flux was usually small (\u3c 5%), albeit increasing with increasing fluidization velocities

    Phase distribution identification in the column leaching of low grade ores using MRI

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    Heap bioleaching is gaining importance as an approach for the recovery of valuable metals (e.g. Cu2+) from low grade ores. In this process iron and/or sulfur oxidising microorganisms are used to aid the oxidation of base metal sulfides in the ore, thereby liberating the metal ions into solution. Leach performance is strongly influenced by the contacting of the leach solution and the ore particles. In order to better understand the distribution of the leaching solution on the pore scale in these heaps, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was used to acquire images non-invasively of a section of an irrigated ore bed. This was made possible by the use of specialist MRI acquisition sequences suited to the magnetically heterogeneous environment as presented by the ore material. From the images we were able to determine the pore-occupancy of the liquid and gas phases and to provide novel measurement of the interfacial area between air, leach solution and ore

    Quantitative mapping of chemical compositions with MRI using compressed sensing.

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    In this work, a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method for accelerating the acquisition time of two dimensional concentration maps of different chemical species in mixtures by the use of compressed sensing (CS) is presented. Whilst 2D-concentration maps with a high spatial resolution are prohibitively time-consuming to acquire using full k-space sampling techniques, CS enables the reconstruction of quantitative concentration maps from sub-sampled k-space data. First, the method was tested by reconstructing simulated data. Then, the CS algorithm was used to reconstruct concentration maps of binary mixtures of 1,4-dioxane and cyclooctane in different samples with a field-of-view of 22mm and a spatial resolution of 344μm×344μm. Spiral based trajectories were used as sampling schemes. For the data acquisition, eight scans with slightly different trajectories were applied resulting in a total acquisition time of about 8min. In contrast, a conventional chemical shift imaging experiment at the same resolution would require about 17h. To get quantitative results, a careful weighting of the regularisation parameter (via the L-curve approach) or contrast-enhancing Bregman iterations are applied for the reconstruction of the concentration maps. Both approaches yield relative errors of the concentration map of less than 2mol-% without any calibration prior to the measurement. The accuracy of the reconstructed concentration maps deteriorates when the reconstruction model is biased by systematic errors such as large inhomogeneities in the static magnetic field. The presented method is a powerful tool for the fast acquisition of concentration maps that can provide valuable information for the investigation of many phenomena in chemical engineering applications.The authors thank for the financial support by the following grants: Microsoft Research Cambridge, and EPSRC (EP/K039318/1 and EP/K008218/1). Erik von Harbou was the recipient of a scholarship from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2015.09.01