95 research outputs found

    Spotted-Fever Group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland

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    Three-hundred ninety-two adult Dermacentor variabilis were collected from six Maryland counties during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Infection prevalence for spotted fever group Rickettsia was 3.8%, as determined by polymerase chain reaction. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by sequencing indicated that all infections represented a single rickettsial taxon, Rickettsia montanensis

    Factors Associated with Elevated ALT in an International HIV/HBV Co-Infected Cohort on Long-Term HAART

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    Previous studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk for ALT elevations in HIV-HBV co-infected patients during the first year of HAART; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of ALT elevations with prolonged HAART in this patient group.To identify factors associated with ALT elevations in an HIV-HBV co-infected cohort receiving prolonged HAART, data from 143 co-infected patients on HAART enrolled in an international HIV-HBV co-infected cohort where ALT measurements were obtained every 6 months was analysed. A person-visit analysis was used to determine frequency of ALT elevation (≥ 2.5×ULN) at each visit. Factors associated with ALT elevation were determined using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for correlated data. The median time on HAART at the end of follow-up was 5.6 years (range 0.4-13.3) years. During follow-up, median ALT was 36 U/L with 10.6% of person-visits classified as having ALT elevation. Most ALT elevations were grade 2 (86.5%), with only 13.5% of all ALT elevations grade 3 or higher. Univariate associations with ALT elevation (p<0.05) included history of AIDS, HBV DNA ≥ 2,000 IU/ml, HBeAg positive, study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml and nadir CD4 <200 cells/ml. In the multivariate analysis, only study visit CD4 <200 cells/ml (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.04-4.11, p = 0.04) and HBeAg positive status (OR 2.22, 95%CI 1.03-4.79, p = 0.04) were independently associated with ALT elevation.In this HIV-HBV co-infected cohort, elevated ALT after >1 year of HAART was uncommon, and severe ALT elevations were rare. HIV-HBV co-infected patients on long-term HAART who are either HBeAg positive or have a CD4 count of <200 cells/ml are at increased risk for ALT elevations

    The Impact of HAART on the Respiratory Complications of HIV Infection: Longitudinal Trends in the MACS and WIHS Cohorts

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    Objective: To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design: Two large observational cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study [MACS]) and women (Women's Interagency HIV Study [WIHS]), followed since 1984 and 1994, respectively. Methods: Adjusted odds or hazards ratios for incident respiratory infections or non-infectious respiratory diagnoses, respectively, in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals in both the pre-HAART (MACS only) and HAART eras; and adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios for mortality in HIV-infected persons with lung disease during the HAART era. Results: Compared to HIV-uninfected participants, HIV-infected individuals had more incident respiratory infections both pre-HAART (MACS, odds ratio [adjusted-OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.7; p<0.001) and after HAART availability (MACS, adjusted-OR, 1.5; 95%CI 1.3-1.7; p<0.001; WIHS adjusted-OR, 2.2; 95%CI 1.8-2.7; p<0.001). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was more common in MACS HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected participants pre-HAART (hazard ratio [adjusted-HR] 2.9; 95%CI, 1.02-8.4; p = 0.046). After HAART availability, non-infectious lung diseases were not significantly more common in HIV-infected participants in either MACS or WIHS participants. HIV-infected participants in the HAART era with respiratory infections had an increased risk of death compared to those without infections (MACS adjusted-HR, 1.5; 95%CI, 1.3-1.7; p<0.001; WIHS adjusted-HR, 1.9; 95%CI, 1.5-2.4; p<0.001). Conclusion: HIV infection remained a significant risk for infectious respiratory diseases after the introduction of HAART, and infectious respiratory diseases were associated with an increased risk of mortality. © 2013 Gingo et al

    Dietary Intake Is Associated With Neuropsychological Impairment in Women With HIV

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    Background Diet is a modifiable risk factor that may influence cognition in people with HIV. Objectives We examined the association between dietary intake and cognition in women with HIV (WWH) and HIV-seronegative women. Methods An 18-item dietary National Cancer Institute screener was completed by 729 WWH and 346 HIV-seronegative Women\u27s Interagency HIV Study participants. Daily intake frequencies of processed meats, sweet beverages, fish, whole milk, and vegetables were calculated. Participants completed biennial neuropsychological (NP) testing. NP domains included attention/working memory, executive function, processing speed, memory, learning, fluency, and motor function. NP impairment was defined as demographically adjusted T-scores (mean = 50; SD = 10) ≤40 at ≥1 visit after completing the dietary screener. Multivariable logistic regression, stratified by HIV serostatus, examined associations between intake frequency tertile (referent = lowest intake) and NP performance. Results Dietary intake frequencies of individual food line items were similar between WWH and HIV-seronegative women, except for sweet beverages, for which HIV-seronegative women reported higher intake frequencies than WWH (P values \u3c 0.05). In WWH, multivariable-adjusted models indicated higher odds of NP impairment with higher intake frequencies of processed meat [P = 0.006; ORupper tertile = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.23–2.95; P = 0.003); ORmiddle tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14–2.42; P = 0.01)], sweet beverages [P = 0.02; ORupper tertile = 1.75 (95% CI: 1.17–2.64; P = 0.007)], fish [P = 0.01; ORupper tertile = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.10–2.64; P = 0.02)], and whole milk [P = 0.029; ORupper tertile = 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14–2.42; P = 0.008)]. Lower odds of NP impairment [P = 0.005; ORupper tertile = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45–0.95; P = 0.02); ORmiddle tertile = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.24–0.73; P = 0.002)] were associated with higher vegetable intakes. In HIV-seronegative women, multivariable-adjusted models did not show associations between food line items/diet quality score and NP outcomes. Conclusions Intakes of processed meat, sweet beverages, whole milk, fish, and vegetables may be associated with NP functions among WWH. Associations among WWH are not directly comparable to those among HIV-seronegative women, because models were conducted on each group separately given controls for HIV-specific covariates in WWH. Further studies are needed using more rigorous dietary assessment methods and lengthier longitudinal follow-ups

    Factors affecting the prevalence of strongly and weakly carcinogenic and lower-risk human papillomaviruses in anal specimens in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM)

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    Background: MSM are at higher risk for invasive anal cancer. Twelve human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer in women (Group 1 high-risk HPVs (hrHPVs)) and 13 HPVs are probable/possible causes (Group 2 hrHPVs) of cervical malignancy. HPVs rarely associated with malignancy are classified as lower-risk HPVs (lrHPVs). Materials and Methods: Dacron-swab anal-cytology specimens were collected from and data complete for 97% (1262/1296) of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) men tested for HPVs using the Linear Array assay. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs, controlling for the effects of age, race, ethnicity, sexual partnerships, smoking; HIV-infection characteristics, treatment, and immune status among HIV-infected men. Results: HIV-infected men showed 35-90% higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs than HIV-uninfected men, and higher prevalence of multi-Type, and multiple risk-group infections. CD4+ T-cell count was inversely associated with HPV Group 2 prevalence (p<0.0001). The number of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) partners reported in the 24 months preceding HPV testing predicted higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs. Men reporting ≥30 lifetime male sex partners before their first MACS visit and men reporting ≥1 RAI partners during the 24 months before HPV testing showed 17-24% and 13-17% higher prevalence of lrHPVs (p-values ≤0.05). Men reporting smoking between MACS visit 1 and 24 months before HPV testing showed 1.2-fold higher prevalence of Group 2 hrHPVs (p = 0.03). Both complete adherence to CART (p = 0.02) and HIV load <50 copies/mL (p = 0.04) were protective for Group 1 hrHPVs among HIV-infected men. Conclusions: HIV-infected men more often show multi-type and multi-group HPV infections HIV-uninfected men. Long-term mutual monogamy and smoking cessation, generally, and CART-adherence that promotes (HIV) viremia control and prevents immunosuppression, specifically among HIV-infected MSM, are important prevention strategies for HPV infections that are relevant to anal cancer. © 2013 Wiley et al

    Association of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection With T-Cell Phenotypes in HIV-Negative and HIV-Positive Women

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    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia is thought to have broad systemic effects on the cellular immune system that go beyond its impact on just those T cells that are HCV specific. However, previous studies of chronic HCV and circulating T-cell subsets (activation and differentiation phenotypes) in HIV negatives used general population controls, rather than a risk-appropriate comparison group. Studies in HIV positives did not address overall immune status (total CD4 + count). Methods: We used fresh blood from HIV-positive and at-risk HIVnegative women, with and without chronic HCV, to measure percentages of activated CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, Tregs, and T-cell differentiation phenotypes (naive, central memory, effector memory (EM), and terminally differentiated effector). This included 158 HIV negatives and 464 HIV positives, of whom 18 and 63, respectively, were HCV viremic. Results: In multivariate models of HIV negatives, HCV viremia was associated with 25% fewer naive CD4 + (P = 0.03), 33% more EM CD4 + (P = 0.0002), and 37% fewer central memory CD8 + (P = 0.02) T cells. Among HIV positives, we observed only 1 of these 3 relationships: higher percentage of EM CD4 + among HCV viremic women. Furthermore, the association with EM CD4 + among HIV positives was limited to individuals with diminished immune status (total CD4 + count #500 cells/mL), as were associations of HCV viremia with higher percentages of activated CD4 + and Tregs. Among HIV positives with high CD4 + count, no significant associations were observed. Conclusions: These data suggest that HCV viremia in HIV negatives is associated with accelerated T-cell differentiation, but among HIV positives, the impact of HCV viremia is less straightforward and varies by total CD4 + count

    Estimating past hepatitis C infection risk from reported risk factor histories: implications for imputing age of infection and modeling fibrosis progression

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    BackgroundChronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputing the time of infection, often as the reported age of first injection drug use. We sought to examine the accuracy of such imputation and implications for modeling factors that influence progression rates.MethodsWe analyzed cross-sectional data on hepatitis C antibody status and reported risk factor histories from two large studies, the Women’s Interagency HIV Study and the Urban Health Study, using modern survival analysis methods for current status data to model past infection risk year by year. We compared fitted distributions of past infection risk to reported age of first injection drug use.ResultsAlthough injection drug use appeared to be a very strong risk factor, models for both studies showed that many subjects had considerable probability of having been infected substantially before or after their reported age of first injection drug use. Persons reporting younger age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected after, and persons reporting older age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected before.ConclusionsIn studies of fibrosis progression, modern methods such as multiple imputation should be used to account for the substantial uncertainty about when infection occurred. The models presented here can provide the inputs needed by such methods. Using reported age of first injection drug use as the time of infection in studies of fibrosis progression is likely to produce a spuriously strong association of younger age of infection with slower rate of progression
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