9 research outputs found

    Reduced transition between open and inactivated channel states underlies 5HT increased I(Na+) in rat nociceptors.

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    We previously demonstrated that activation of a 5HT(4) receptor coupled cAMP-dependent signaling pathway increases tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) current (I(Na)) in a nociceptor-like subpopulation of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (type 2). In the present study we used electrophysiology experiments and computer modeling studies to explore the mechanism(s) underlying the increase of I(Na) by 5HT. In electrophysiological experiments with type 2 dorsal root ganglion cells, 5HT increased peak I(Na) and the activation and inactivation rate, without significantly affecting the voltage dependency of activation or availability. Studies on the voltage dependency of channel availability, time course of removal of inactivation, and inactivation of evoked Na(+) currents suggested that there are at least two inactivation states of the Na(+) channel, one (I(fast)) that is induced and retrieved faster than the other (I(slow)). Long (1 s), but not short (60 or 100 ms), inactivating conditioning pulses (CPs) suppressed the 5HT-induced increase in I(Na). Computer modeling studies suggest that 5HT increased I(Na) mainly by decreasing the transition rate (k(OI1)) from an open state to I(fast). Furthermore, 5HT increased I(Na) activation and inactivation rates mainly by increasing the transition rate from closed to open (k(C3O)) and from I(fast) to I(slow) (k(I1I2)), respectively. The antagonism of the 5HT-induced increase in I(Na) by 1-s inactivation CPs may be due an enhancement of transitions from I(fast) to I(slow), via the increase in k(I1I2). This may deplete the pool of channels residing in I(fast), reducing the frequency of reopenings from I(fast), which offsets the increase in I(Na) produced by the reduction in k(OI1). The above findings fit well with previous studies showing that activation of the cAMP/PKA cascade simultaneously increases voltage sensitive tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) conductance and inactivation rate in nociceptors. The antagonism of the effects of 5HT by long inactivation CPs suggests that drugs designed to induce and/or stabilize the I(slow) state might be useful for reducing hyperalgesia produced by inflammatory mediators

    Serotonergic modulation of hyperpolarization-activated current in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

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    The effect of serotonin (5-HT) on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH) was studied in small-, medium- and large-diameter acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells, including cells categorized as type 1, 2, 3 and 4 based on membrane properties. 5-HT increased IH in 91 % of medium-diameter DRG cells (including type 4) and in 67 % of large-diameter DRG cells, but not other DRG cell types.The increase of IH by 5-HT was antagonized by spiperone but not cyanopindolol, and was mimicked by 5-carboxyamidotryptamine, but not (+)-8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) or cyanopindolol. These data suggested the involvement of 5-HT7 receptors, which were shown to be expressed by medium-diameter DRG cells using RT-PCR analysis.5-HT shifted the conductance-voltage relationship of IH by +6 mV without changing peak conductance. The effects of 5-HT on IH were mimicked and occluded by forskolin, but not by inactive 1,9-dideoxy forskolin.At holding potentials negative to -50 mV, 5-HT increased steady-state inward current and instantaneous membrane conductance (fast current). The 5-HT-induced inward current and fast current were blocked by Cs+ but not Ba2+ and reversed at -23 mV, consistent with the properties of tonically activated IH.In medium-diameter neurons recorded from in the current clamp mode, 5-HT depolarized the resting membrane potential, decreased input resistance and facilitated action potential generation by anode-break excitation.The above data suggest that in distinct subpopulations of DRG neurons, 5-HT increases cAMP levels via activation of 5-HT7 receptors, which shifts the voltage dependence of IH to more depolarized potentials and increases neuronal excitability

    A Modeling Study of T-Type Ca2+ Channel Gating and Modulation by L-Cysteine in Rat Nociceptors

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    L-cysteine (L-cys) increases the amplitude of T-type Ca2+ currents in rat T-rich nociceptor-like dorsal root ganglia neurons. The modulation of T-type Ca2+ channel gating by L-cys was studied by fitting Markov state models to whole-cell currents recorded from T-rich neurons. The best fitting model tested included three resting states and inactivation from the second resting state and the open state. Inactivation and the final opening step were voltage-independent, whereas transitions between the resting states and deactivation were voltage-dependent. The transition rates between the first two resting states were an order of magnitude faster than those between the second and third resting states, and the voltage-dependency of forward transitions through resting states was two to three times greater than for analogous backward transitions. Analysis with the best fitting model suggested that L-cys increases current amplitude mainly by increasing the transition rate from resting to open and decreasing the transition rate from open to inactivated. An additional model was developed that could account for the bi-exponential time course of recovery from inactivation of the currents and the high frequency of blank sweeps in single channel recordings. This model detected basically the same effects of L-cys on channel gating as the best fitting model