10,627 research outputs found

    The role of influenza neuraminidase transmembrane domain on budding and virus morphology

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    Influenza A virus neuraminidase (NA), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein plays a role in the cleavage of sialic acids and facilitating the release of mature virions from the surface of infected cells. NA has also previously been shown to play a role in virion formation during influenza A virus budding, although the exact mechanisms by which NA contributes to influenza virion formation and morphology is currently unknown. Previous research has shown that mutations within the transmembrane domain (TMD) of NA can result in alteration in virion morphology, particularly in the production of filament like influenza virions. In this research project we examined if the TMD does indeed play a role in influenza virus budding and morphology. We utilised both full and partial mutations of the TMD of NA from A/WSN/33, a primarily spherical lab adapted influenza strain, with the TMD of a primarily filamentous strain A/California/09. To evaluate the effects of TMD on the morphology of a primarily spherical strain with that of filamentous strain. This study used a transfection based virus like particle (VLP) system to examine the effects of TMD alterations on morphology, utilising various biochemical and microscopy methods. Our findings show that as previously indicated mutations within the TMD do result in alterations to virion morphology, as well as showing that despite previous theories both NA and NA’s TMD may play a more active role in in budding and morphology than previously though

    Cosmic Microwave Background Observations as a Way to Discriminate Among Inflation Models

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    The upcoming satellite missions MAP and Planck will measure the spectrum of fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background with unprecedented accuracy. We discuss the prospect of using these observations to distinguish among proposed models of inflationary cosmology.Comment: To appear in the proceedings of the XXXIIIrd Rencontres de Moriond, "Fundamental Parameters in Cosmology", 17-24 January, Les Arcs, France. 6 Pages, 2 figures, uses moriond.st

    What is creative to whom and why? Perceptions in advertising agencies

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    The authors apply recent advances in creativity theory to discover perceptual differences in the factors of strategy, originality, and artistry among creatives and noncreatives. It was found that current advertising position influences subjective perceptions of what constitutes creative advertising. Creatives tend to perceive advertisements as more appropriate if they are artistic, but account executives tend to perceive advertisements as more appropriate if they are strategic. The study also indicates that creatives have a distinctive preference for a strong originality component to strategy. To be original within the confines of a tight strategy is perceived as the most creative by advertising creatives. Account executives are so focused on strategy, they will often accept artistic advertisements as a substitute for truly original work. The authors consider future research implications of the study and its limitations

    Careers Education and Advice : debate on 6 September 2018

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    Extension of Grammar Schools and Selection in Education

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