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    Different response to epidermal growth factor of hepatocytes in cultures isolated from male or female rat liver. Inhibitor effect of estrogen on binding and mitogenic effect of epidermal growth factor

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    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from the livers of male and female rats has been compared in monolayer culture. Plating efficiency, DNA and protein content, viability, and morphologic appearance were the same in cultures prepared with hepatocytes isolated from male or female rats. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes from male rats than in hepatocytes from female rats. This was the case whether hepatocytes were isolated from normal or partially hepatectomized male or female rats. Hepatocytes isolated from regenerating liver synthesize more DNA than those isolated from normal liver in response to EGF. This increased response to EGF in hepatocytes derived from regenerating liver was relatively the same for male- and female-derived hepatocytes, but the magnitude of the response was considerably higher in male-derived hepatocytes. In contrast, in vivo DNA synthesis in the liver remnant after partial hepatectomy was similar in male and female rats if measured 24 h after the operation. A comparison of EGF binding to male- and female-derived hepatocytes maintained in primary culture indicated a lower number of high-affinity receptors for EGF in the female hepatocytes. The addition of estrogen to primary cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male rats inhibited EGF binding as well as EGF-induced DNA synthesis. Our studies show significant differences in DNA synthesis in response to EGF when male and female hepatocytes are compared in primary culture. The regenerative response after partial hepatectomy, on the other hand, was the same in male and female rats. Thus, our studies indicate that the sex of the donor rat is important when hepatocytes in culture are used for a variety of studies, such as hepatocyte metabolism, induction and control of DNA synthesis, and hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, our results indicate that caution is advised when inferences are made from in vitro findings for in vivo conditions. © 1987

    Community garden initiatives addressing health and well‐being outcomes: A systematic review of infodemiology aspects, outcomes, and target populations

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    Previous research has suggested that activities such as community gardens could offer a wide range of health benefits. The aim of the article is to systematically review the available literature to analyse the magnitude of the phenomenon, the geographical distribution, and the main characteristics in terms of health outcomes and target populations. The search addresses the question whether the activity in community gardens improves health and well-being outcomes of individuals. From the total amount of 7226, 84 selected articles showed that:(1) up to 50% are published by U.S. universities or institutions; (2) up to 44% of the studies considered “community gardens” as the main activity of the research focus; (3) one-third of the studies included adults; (4) almost 25% of the studies used “general health” as the main outcome when investigating the benefits of community gardens; (5) the percentage of studies that achieved their outcomes was heterogeneous among the different health dimensions. In conclusion, while a certain degree of heterogeneity in the used definition and outcome still exist, community gardens may be a viable strategy for well-being promotion in terms of psychological, social, and physical health and may be considered as an innovative urban strategy to promote urban public health

    Dietary Patterns at the Individual Level through a Nutritional and Environmental Approach: The Case Study of a School Canteen

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    The public catering sector has important responsibilities in seeking a change toward more sustainable choices for many aspects related to the environmental impacts of their services. The environmental impact of production processes can be studied through life cycle assessment (LCA), which allows a greater awareness of choices and has rarely been applied to catering. In this work, we studied the impacts of two dishes (braised meat and cauliflower meatballs) in a school canteen, their impacts were studied using the daily energy requirement (expressed in kcal) as a functional unit. Global warming potential (GWP) and nonrenewable energy (NRE) were calculated starting from the supply of raw materials up to distribution. Electricity and the act of cooking the meatballs accounted for more than 60% of the measured impact in terms of GWP, whereas, less markedly, they dominated in terms of nonrenewable energy used. In the case of braised meat, the total impact was, however, attributable to the life cycle of the meat (between 60% and 76%) and the consumption of electricity (between 19% and 27%), whereas for all other factors, the contribution was never particularly high. Additionally, a discussion on the correct functional unit to be used proposed the environmental impact of different recipes as an additional criterion for nutritionists during the composition of the menu. An integrated system appears important for changing policies and behaviors and the application of LCA can be a tool capable of contributing to the construction of a holistic instrument of sustainability

    Mapping Orientational Order of Charge-Probed Domains in a Semiconducting Polymer

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    Structure–property relationships are of fundamental importance to develop quantitative models describing charge transport in organic semiconductor based electronic devices, which are among the best candidates for future portable and lightweight electronic applications. While microstructural investigations, such as those based on X-rays, electron microscopy, or polarized optical probes, provide necessary information for the rationalization of transport in macromolecular solids, a general model predicting how charge accommodates within structural maps is not yet available. Therefore, techniques capable of directly monitoring how charge is distributed when injected into a polymer film and how it correlates to structural domains can help fill this gap. Supported by density functional theory calculations, here we show that polarized charge modulation microscopy (p-CMM) can unambiguously and selectively map the orientational order of the only conjugated segments that are probed by mobile charge in the few nanometer thick accumulation layer of a high-mobility polymer-based field-effect transistor . Depending on the specific solvent-induced microstructure within the accumulation layer, we show that p-CMM can image charge-probed domains that extend from submicrometer to tens of micrometers size, with markedly different degrees of alignment. Wider and more ordered p-CMM domains are associated with improved carrier mobility, as extracted from device characteristics. This observation evidences the unprecedented opportunity to correlate, directly in a working device, electronic properties with structural information on those conjugated segments involved in charge transport at the buried semiconductor–dielectric interface of a field-effect device

    Psoas abscess ten years after ipsilateral nephrectomy for pyonephrosis

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    Pyogenic abscess of the psoas muscle is a rare disease. The Authors report a recently observed case which developed 10 years after ipsilateral nephrectomy for pyonephrosis, reviewing the pertinent literature. The culture of the pus extracted only reproduced Proteus mirabilis. The relation between psoas abscess and nephrectomy is unclear. To make diagnosis is important to consider this condition in differential diagnosis in presence of fever and flank tenderness in a nephrectomized patient

    Modified montmorillonite as drug delivery agent for enhancing antibiotic therapy

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    The appealing properties of surfactant‐intercalated Montmorillonites (Organo-montmorillonite, OMt) were successfully investigated to propose an effective drug delivery system for metronidazole (MNE) antibiotic therapy. This represents a serious pharmaceutical concern due to the adverse drug reactions and the low targeting ability of MNE. The non‐ionic surfactant Tween 20 was used to functionalize montmorillonite, thus accomplishing the two‐fold objective of enhancing the stability of clay dispersion and better controlling drug uptake and release. The adsorption process was performed under different experimental conditions and investigated by constructing the adsorption isotherms through high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements. Powder X‐ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to characterize the MNE/OMt compounds. The gathered results revealed that the uptake of the drug occurs preferentially in the clay interlayer, and it is governed by positive cooperative processes. The presence of surfactant drives the adsorption into clay interlayer and hampers the adsorption onto external lamella faces. The good performances of the prepared OMt in the controlled release of the MNE were proved by investigating the release profiles under physiological conditions, simulating oral drug administration. Cytotoxicity measurements demonstrated the biocompatibility of the complexes and evidenced that, under specific experimental conditions, nanodevices are more biocompatible than a free drug