5,006 research outputs found

    Critical points of convex perturbations of quadratic functionals

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    AbstractA relationship between PS-condition and convexity for functionals exhibiting resonance type behavior at infinity is established. This leads to new existence and multiplicity results for critical points

    New directions in EEG measurement: an investigation into the fidelity of electrical potential sensor signals

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    Low frequency noise performance is the key indicator in determining the signal to noise ratio of a capacitively coupled sensor when used to acquire electroencephalogram signals. For this reason, a prototype Electric Potential Sensor device based on an auto-zero operational amplifier has been developed and evaluated. The absence of 1/f noise in these devices makes them ideal for use with signal frequencies ~10 Hz or less. The active electrodes are designed to be physically and electrically robust and chemically and biochemically inert. They are electrically insulated (anodized) and have diameters of 12 mm or 18 mm. In both cases, the sensors are housed in inert stainless steel machined housings with the electronics fabricated in surface mount components on a printed circuit board compatible with epoxy potting compounds. Potted sensors are designed to be immersed in alcohol for sterilization purposes. A comparative study was conducted with a commercial wet gel electrode system. These studies comprised measurements of both free running electroencephalogram and Event Related Potentials. Quality of the recorded electroencephalogram was assessed using three methods of inspection of raw signal, comparing signal to noise ratios, and Event Related Potentials noise analysis. A strictly comparable signal to noise ratio was observed and the overall conclusion from these comparative studies is that the noise performance of the new sensor is appropriate

    On a problem of A. Weil

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    A topological invariant of the geodesic laminations on a modular surface is constructed. The invariant has a continuous part (the tail of a continued fraction) and a combinatorial part (the singularity data). It is shown, that the invariant is complete, i.e. the geodesic lamination can be recovered from the invariant. The continuous part of the invariant has geometric meaning of a slope of lamination on the surface.Comment: to appear Beitr\"age zur Algebra und Geometri

    Impact of DM direct searches and the LHC analyses on branon phenomenology

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    Dark Matter direct detection experiments are able to exclude interesting parameter space regions of particle models which predict an important amount of thermal relics. We use recent data to constrain the branon model and to compute the region that is favored by CDMS measurements. Within this work, we also update present colliders constraints with new studies coming from the LHC. Despite the present low luminosity, it is remarkable that for heavy branons, CMS and ATLAS measurements are already more constraining than previous analyses performed with TEVATRON and LEP data.Comment: 17 pages, 2 figure

    Role of PknB Kinase in Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence in Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300

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    The regulation of cellular processes by eukaryote-like serine/threonine kinases is widespread in bacteria. In the last 2 years, several studies have examined the role of serine/threonine kinases in Staphylococcus aureus on cell wall metabolism, autolysis, and virulence, mostly in S. aureus laboratory isolates in the 8325-4 lineage. In this study, we showed that the pknB gene (also called stk1) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain COL and the community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strain USA300 is involved in cell wall metabolism, with the pknB mutant exhibiting enhanced sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics but not to other classes of antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, bactrim, and other types of cell wall-active agents (e.g., vancomycin and bacitracin). Additionally, the pknB mutant of USA300 was found to be more resistant to Triton X-100-induced autolysis and also to lysis by lysostaphin. We also showed that pknB is a positive regulator of sigB activity, resulting in compromise in its response to heat and oxidative stresses. In association with reduced sigB activity, the expression levels of RNAII and RNAIII of agr and the downstream effector hla are upregulated while spa expression is downmodulated in the pknB mutant compared to the level in the parent. Consistent with an enhanced agr response in vitro, virulence studies of the pknB mutant of USA300 in a murine cutaneous model of infection showed that the mutant was more virulent than the parental strain. Collectively, our results have linked the pknB gene in CA-MRSA to antibiotic resistance, sigB activity, and virulence and have highlighted important differences in pknB phenotypes (virulence and sigB activity) between laboratory isolates and the prototypic CA-MRSA strain USA300

    Using the atmospheric CO2 growth rate to constrain the CO2 flux from land use and land cover change since 1900

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    We explore the ability of the atmospheric CO2 record since 1900 to constrain the source of CO2 from land use and land cover change (hereafter “land use”), taking account of uncertainties in other terms in the global carbon budget. We find that the atmospheric constraint favors land use CO2 flux estimates with lower decadal variability and can identify potentially erroneous features, such as emission peaks around 1960 and after 2000, in some published estimates. Furthermore, we resolve an offset in the global carbon budget that is most plausibly attributed to the land use flux. This correction shifts the mean land use flux since 1900 across 20 published estimates down by 0.35 PgC year−1 to 1.04 ± 0.57 PgC year−1, which is within the range but at the low end of these estimates. We show that the atmospheric CO2 record can provide insights into the time history of the land use flux that may reduce uncertainty in this term and improve current understanding and projections of the global carbon cycle. © 2022 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley Sons Ltd