4,546 research outputs found

    Calculation of the Regularized Vacuum Energy in Cavity Field Theories

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    A novel technique based on Schwinger's proper time method is applied to the Casimir problem of the M.I.T. bag model. Calculations of the regularized vacuum energies of massless scalar and Dirac spinor fields confined to a static and spherical cavity are presented in a consistent manner. While our results agree partly with previous calculations based on asymptotic methods, the main advantage of our technique is that the numerical errors are under control. Interpreting the bag constant as a vacuum expectation value, we investigate potential cancellations of boundary divergences between the canonical energy and its bag constant counterpart in the fermionic case. It is found that such cancellations do not occur.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in Eur.Phys.J.

    Stochastic efficiency analysis with risk aversion bounds: a simplified approach

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    A method of stochastic dominance analysis with respect to a function (SDRF) is described and illustrated. The method, called stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF), orders a set of risky alternatives in terms of certainty equivalents for a specified range of attitudes to risk. It can be applied for conforming utility functions with risk attitudes defined by corresponding ranges of absolute, relative or partial risk aversion coefficients. Unlike conventional SDRF, SERF involves comparing each alternative with all the other alternatives simultaneously, not pairwise, and hence can produce a smaller efficient set than that found by simple pairwise SDRF over the same range of risk attitudes. Moreover, the method can be implemented in a simple spreadsheet with no special software needed.Risk and Uncertainty,

    Effect of area ratio on the performance of a 5.5:1 pressure ratio centrifugal impeller

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    A centrifugal impeller which was initially designed for a pressure ratio of approximately 5.5 and a mass flow rate of 0.959 kg/sec was tested with a vaneless diffuser for a range of design point impeller area ratios from 2.322 to 2.945. The impeller area ratio was changed by successively cutting back the impeller exit axial width from an initial value of 7.57 mm to a final value of 5.97 mm. In all, four separate area ratios were tested. For each area ratio a series of impeller exit axial clearances was also tested. Test results are based on impeller exit surveys of total pressure, total temperature, and flow angle at a radius 1.115 times the impeller exit radius. Results of the tests at design speed, peak efficiency, and an exit tip clearance of 8 percent of exit blade height show that the impeller equivalent pressure recovery coefficient peaked at a design point area ratio of approximately 2.748 while the impeller aerodynamic efficiency peaked at a lower value of area ratio of approximately 2.55. The variation of impeller efficiency with clearance showed expected trends with a loss of approximately 0.4 points in impeller efficiency for each percent increase in exit axial tip clearance for all impellers tested

    Comparison of Risk Between Cropping Systems in Eastern Norway

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    The aim of this study was to compare production and policy risk of organic, integrated and conventional cropping systems in Norway. Experimental cropping system data (1991-1999) from eastern Norway were combined with budgeted data. Empirical distributions of total farm income for different cropping systems were estimated with a simulation model that uses a multivariate kernel density function to smooth the limited experimental data. Stochastic efficiency with respect to a function (SERF) was used to rank the cropping systems for farmers with various risk aversion levels. The results show that the organic system had the greatest net farm income variability, but the existing payment system and organic price premiums makes it the most economically viable alternative.organic, integrated and conventional crop farming, stochastic simulation, multivariate kernel estimator, risk aversion, stochastic efficiency with respect to a function, Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty, Q12, C44,

    Comparison of Alternative Safety Net Programs for the 2000 Farm Bill

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    As Congress begins its debate for the 2002 farm bill, there have been calls for a counter cyclical safety net that will provide a better basis for targeting longer term planning than exists with ad hoc emergency assistance. Further subsidization of the multi-peril crop insurance (MPCI) program has been proposed, as well as reliance on a farm and ranch risk management (FARRM) account to help farmers. A whole farm revenue income support program and several variations of national income supplement programs have been put forward. A comprehensive analysis of different safety net alternatives using a common methodology is needed so farmers and policy makers can make objective comparisons. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively analyze the economic effects of alternative safety net/insurance programs on farmers in the Southern United States. The objective is accomplished by simulating representative crop farms in the South over the 2001-2005 planning horizon for alternative safety net options. The simulated net present value distributions for the farms are compared using certainty equivalents to determine the value of alternative safety net options to feed grain, cotton and rice farms in the South.Agricultural and Food Policy,

    Comparison of Unix Communication Facilities Used In Linda

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    This report presents the results of an investigative effort that focuses on a first step toward providing a distributed framework for Linda system processes. In particular, we discuss the restructuring of the kernel "process" to support Tuple Space access through UNIX socket calls, rather than through shared memory primitives based on semaphore usage. A description of the restructured system and the rationale for such restructuring is presented first. Most intriguing, however, are the latter sections that discuss the ramifications and insights gained from our particular approach to system redesign, i.e., the unnecessary serialization of Tuple Space access, redundant memory copies, being victimized by the UNIX scheduler