37,974 research outputs found

    Coupled Luttinger Liquids

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    Many one--dimensional quantum systems, in particular interacting electron and spin systems, can be described a Luttinger liquids. Here, some basic ideas of this picture of one--dimensional systems are briefly reviewed. I then discuss the effect of interchain coupling for a finite number of parallel chains. In the case of spin chains coupled by exchange interactions, the low--energy properties are radically different according to whether the number of coupled chains is even or odd: even number of chains have a gap in the spin excitations, whereas odd numbers of chains are gapless. The effect of interchain tunneling is analyzed for two and three coupled chains of itinerant fermions: for repulsive interactions, the two--chain system is ``universally'' found to be a d--wave superconductor, with a gap in the spin excitation spectrum. On the other hand, for three chains the ground state depends both on the boundary conditions in the transverse direction and on the strength of the interactions. Weak repulsive interactions in all cases lead to dominant superconducting pairing of d--type. An example of a three--leg spin ladder with a spin gap is proposed. A general scheme to keep track of fermion anticommutation in the bosonization technique is developed.Comment: 14 pages, Revtex with epsf, 3 figures included as Postscript files, Rencontres de Moriond, Les Arcs, France, Jan. 199

    Collective Diffusion and a Random Energy Landscape

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    Starting from a master equation in a quantum Hamiltonian form and a coupling to a heat bath we derive an evolution equation for a collective hopping process under the influence of a stochastic energy landscape. There results different equations in case of an arbitrary occupation number per lattice site or in a system under exclusion. Based on scaling arguments it will be demonstrated that both systems belong below the critical dimension dcd_c to the same universality class leading to anomalous diffusion in the long time limit. The dynamical exponent zz can be calculated by an ϵ=dcd\epsilon = d_c-d expansion. Above the critical dimension we discuss the differences in the diffusion constant for sufficient high temperatures. For a random potential we find a higher mobility for systems with exclusion.Comment: 15 pages, no figure

    Quantum fluctuations in the spiral phase of the Hubbard model

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    We study the magnetic excitations in the spiral phase of the two--dimensional Hubbard model using a functional integral method. Spin waves are strongly renormalized and a line of near--zeros is observed in the spectrum around the spiral pitch ±Q\pm{\bf Q}. The possibility of disordered spiral states is examined by studying the one--loop corrections to the spiral order parameter. We also show that the spiral phase presents an intrinsic instability towards an inhomogeneous state (phase separation, CDW, ...) at weak doping. Though phase separation is suppressed by weak long--range Coulomb interactions, the CDW instability only disappears for sufficiently strong Coulomb interaction.Comment: Figures are NOW appended via uuencoded postscript fil