741 research outputs found

    Patterns of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck

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    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy in the head and neck. The prognosis remains poor and late recurrences often occur after 5 years and later. To date, there are no reliable prognostic markers for ACC. In several solid tumors, tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are associated with improved survival. This study aims to investigate the role of distribution patterns of tumor infiltrating immune cells (TIL) in ACC. A cohort of 50 patients from three different cancer centers was available for analysis. Sections were stained for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20 and evaluated with regard to their distribution of TIL. Patterns were determined as infiltrated-excluded, infiltrated-inflamed and presence of tertiary lymphoid structures. About half of the cases showed an infiltrated-excluded TIL pattern and only a minority of six cases had TLS present within the tumor. Within the inflamed phenotype CD3+ cells were by far the most abundant lymphocyte subtype, and within this compartment, CD8+ T cells were predominant. There was no influence on overall or disease-free survival by any of the TIL patterns. This indicates that ACC is a tumor with very low immunogenicity and even abundance of lymphocytes does not seem to improve prognosis for this disease. Therefore, the observed lack of response towards immunotherapy is not surprising and other methods to induce recognition of ACC by the immune system must be found

    Differential effects of α4ÎČ7 and GPR15 on homing of effector and regulatory T cells from patients with UC to the inflamed gut in vivo

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    Objective: Gut homing of lymphocytes via adhesion molecules has recently emerged as new target for therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases. We aimed to analyze the in vivo homing of effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells to the inflamed gut via α4ÎČ7 and GPR15. Design: We assessed the expression of homing receptors on T cells in peripheral blood and inflamed mucosa. We studied the migration pattern and homing of Teff and Treg cells to the inflamed gut using intravital confocal microscopy and FACS in a humanized mouse model in DSS-treated NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid-Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ) mice. Results: Expression of GPR15 and α4ÎČ7 was significantly increased on Treg rather than Teff cells in peripheral blood of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) as compared to CrohnÂŽs disease and controls. In vivo analysis in a humanized mouse model showed augmented gut homing of UC Treg cells as compared to controls. Moreover, suppression of UC (but not control) Teff and Treg cell homing was noted upon treatment with the α4ÎČ7 antibody vedolizumab. In contrast, siRNA blockade of GPR15 had only effects on homing of Teff cells but did not affect Treg homing in UC. Clinical vedolizumab treatment was associated with marked expansion of UC Treg cells in peripheral blood. Conclusion: α4ÎČ7 rather than GPR15 is crucial for increased colonic homing of UC Treg cells in vivo, while both receptors control UC Teff homing. Vedolizumab treatment impairs homing of UC Treg cells leading to their accumulation in peripheral blood with subsequent suppression of systemic effector T cell expansion

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV

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    Abstract The parton-level top quark (t) forward-backward asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric (d̂ t) and chromomagnetic (Ό̂ t) moments have been measured using LHC pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected in the CMS detector in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb−1. The linearized variable AFB(1) is used to approximate the asymmetry. Candidate t t ÂŻ events decaying to a muon or electron and jets in final states with low and high Lorentz boosts are selected and reconstructed using a fit of the kinematic distributions of the decay products to those expected for t t ÂŻ final states. The values found for the parameters are AFB(1)=0.048−0.087+0.095(stat)−0.029+0.020(syst),Ό̂t=−0.024−0.009+0.013(stat)−0.011+0.016(syst), and a limit is placed on the magnitude of | d̂ t| < 0.03 at 95% confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

    Measurement of b jet shapes in proton-proton collisions at root s=5.02 TeV