2,843 research outputs found

    The warped young stellar disc in the Galactic Centre

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    Within the central parsec of the Galaxy, several tens of young stars orbiting a central supermassive black hole are observed. A subset of these stars forms a coherently rotating disc. Other observations reveal a massive molecular torus which lies at a radius ~1.5pc from the centre. In this paper we consider the gravitational influence of the molecular torus upon the stars of the stellar disc. We derive an analytical formula for the rate of precession of individual stellar orbits and we show that it is highly sensitive upon the orbital semi-major axis and inclination with respect to the plane of the torus as well as on the mass of the torus. Assuming that both the stellar disc and the molecular torus are stable on the time-scale >6Myr, we constrain the mass of the torus and its inclination with respect to the young stellar disc. We further suggest that all young stars observed in the Galactic Centre may have a common origin in a single coherently rotating structure with an opening angle <5deg, which was partially destroyed (warped) during its lifetime by the gravitational influence of the molecular torus.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The Pierre Auger Observatory III: Other Astrophysical Observations

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    Astrophysical observations of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger ObservatoryComment: Contributions to the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Beijing, China, August 201

    Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Technical reports on operations and features of the Pierre Auger Observatory, including ongoing and planned enhancements and the status of the future northern hemisphere portion of the Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.Comment: Contributions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland, July 200

    Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

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    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost four thousand events above 10^18 eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106 +35/-21) g/cm^2/decade below 10^(18.24 +/- 0.05) eV and (24 +/- 3) g/cm^2/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm^2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.Comment: Accepted for publication by PR

    Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E>Eth=5.5×1019E>E_{th}=5.5\times 10^{19} eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E>EthE>E_{th} are heavy nuclei with charge ZZ, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/ZE/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/ZE_{th}/Z (for illustrative values of Z=6, 13, 26Z=6,\ 13,\ 26). If the anisotropies above EthE_{th} are due to nuclei with charge ZZ, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies

    Single hadron response measurement and calorimeter jet energy scale uncertainty with the ATLAS detector at the LHC