834 research outputs found

    Satellite Observations of Separator Line Geometry of Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection

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    Detection of a separator line that connects magnetic nulls and the determination of the dynamics and plasma environment of such a structure can improve our understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection process. However, this type of field and particle configuration has not been directly observed in space plasmas. Here we report the identification of a pair of nulls, the null-null line that connects them, and associated fans and spines in the magnetotail of Earth using data from the four Cluster spacecraft. With di and de designating the ion and electron inertial lengths, respectively, the separation between the nulls is found to be ~0.7di and an associated oscillation is identified as a lower hybrid wave with wavelength ~ de. This in situ evidence of the full 3D reconnection geometry and associated dynamics provides an important step toward to establishing an observational framework of 3D reconnection.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figures and 1 tabl

    Measurement of the energy response of the ATLAS calorimeter to charged pions from W±→ τ±(→ π±ντ) ντ events in Run 2 data

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    The energy response of the ATLAS calorimeter is measured for single charged pions with transverse momentum in the range 10 < pT< 300 GeV. The measurement is performed using 139 fb - 1 of LHC proton–proton collision data at s=13 TeV taken in Run 2 by the ATLAS detector. Charged pions originating from τ-lepton decays are used to provide a sample of high-pT isolated particles, where the composition is known, to test an energy regime that has not previously been probed by in situ single-particle measurements. The calorimeter response to single-pions is observed to be overestimated by ∼ 2 % across a large part of the pT spectrum in the central region and underestimated by ∼ 4 % in the endcaps in the ATLAS simulation. The uncertainties in the measurements are ≲ 1 % for 15 < pT< 185 GeV in the central region. To investigate the source of the discrepancies, the width of the distribution of the ratio of calorimeter energy to track momentum, the energies per layer and response in the hadronic calorimeter are also compared between data and simulation