790 research outputs found

    Quotients of Bounded Natural Functors

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    The functorial structure of type constructors is the foundation for many definition and proof principles in higher-order logic (HOL). For example, inductive and coinductive datatypes can be built modularly from bounded natural functors (BNFs), a class of well-behaved type constructors. Composition, fixpoints, and, under certain conditions, subtypes are known to preserve the BNF structure. In this article, we tackle the preservation question for quotients, the last important principle for introducing new types in HOL. We identify sufficient conditions under which a quotient inherits the BNF structure from its underlying type. Surprisingly, lifting the structure in the obvious manner fails for some quotients, a problem that also affects the quotients of polynomial functors used in the Lean proof assistant. We provide a strictly more general lifting scheme that supports such problematic quotients. We extend the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant with a command that automates the registration of a quotient type as a BNF, reducing the proof burden on the user from the full set of BNF axioms to our inheritance conditions. We demonstrate the command's usefulness through several case studies.Comment: Extended version of homonymous IJCAR 2020 pape

    Measurement of the electroweak production of dijets in association with a Z-boson and distributions sensitive to vector boson fusion in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

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    Measurements of fiducial cross sections for the electroweak production of two jets in association with a Z-boson are presented. The measurements are performed using 20.3 fb−1 of proton-proton collision data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of p s = 8TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The electroweak component is extracted by a fit to the dijet invariant mass distribution in a fiducial region chosen to enhance the electroweak contribution over the dominant background in which the jets are produced via the strong interaction. The electroweak cross sections measured in two fiducial regions are in good agreement with the Standard Model expectations and the background-only hypothesis is rejected with significance above the 5ơ level. The electroweak process includes the vector boson fusion production of a Z-boson and the data are used to place limits on anomalous triple gauge boson couplings. In addition, measurements of cross sections and differential distributions for inclusive Z-boson-plus-dijet production are performed in five fiducial regions, each with different sensitivity to the electroweak contribution. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to predictions from the Sherpa and Powheg event generators

    Search for nonpointing and delayed photons in the diphoton and missing transverse momentum final state in 8 TeV pp collisions at the LHC using the ATLAS detector

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    A search has been performed, using the full 20.3  fb −1 data sample of 8 TeV proton-proton collisions collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, for photons originating from a displaced vertex due to the decay of a neutral long-lived particle into a photon and an invisible particle. The analysis investigates the diphoton plus missing transverse momentum final state, and is therefore most sensitive to pair production of long-lived particles. The analysis technique exploits the capabilities of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter to make precise measurements of the flight direction, as well as the time of flight, of photons. No excess is observed over the Standard Model predictions for background. Exclusion limits are set within the context of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models, with the lightest neutralino being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle and decaying into a photon and gravitino with a lifetime in the range from 250 ps to about 100 ns

    Search for pair and single production of new heavy quarks that decay to a ℤ boson and a third-generation quark in pp collisions at √ s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A search is presented for the production of new heavy quarks that decay to a Z boson and a third-generation Standard Model quark. In the case of a new charge +2/3 quark (T), the decay targeted is T → Zt, while the decay targeted for a new charge −1/3 quark (B) is B → Zb. The search is performed with a dataset corresponding to 20.3 fb−1 of pp collisions at √ s = 8TeV recorded in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Selected events contain a high transverse momentum Z boson candidate reconstructed from a pair of oppositely charged same-flavor leptons (electrons or muons), and are analyzed in two channels defined by the absence or presence of a third lepton. Hadronic jets, in particular those with properties consistent with the decay of a b-hadron, are also required to be present in selected events. Different requirements are made on the jet activity in the event in order to enhance the sensitivity to either heavy quark pair production mediated by the strong interaction, or single production mediated by the electroweak interaction. No significant excess of events above the Standard Model expectation is observed, and lower limits are derived on the mass of vector-like T and B quarks under various branching ratio hypotheses, as well as upper limits on the agnitude of electroweak coupling parameters

    Search for the lepton flavor violating decay Z→eμ in pp collisions at √s =8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is used to search for the lepton flavor violating process Z→eμ in pp collisions using 20.3  fb −1 of data collected at s √ =8  TeV . An enhancement in the eμ invariant mass spectrum is searched for at the Z -boson mass. The number of Z bosons produced in the data sample is estimated using events of similar topology, Z→ee and μμ , significantly reducing the systematic uncertainty in the measurement. There is no evidence of an enhancement at the Z -boson mass, resulting in an upper limit on the branching fraction, B(Z→eμ)<7.5×10 −7 at the 95% confidence level

    Measurement of Higgs boson production in the diphoton decay channel in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    A measurement of the production processes of the recently discovered Higgs boson is performed in the two-photon final state using 4.5  fb −1 of proton-proton collisions data at s √ =7  TeV and 20.3  fb −1 at s √ =8  TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The number of observed Higgs boson decays to diphotons divided by the corresponding Standard Model prediction, called the signal strength, is found to be μ=1.17±0.27 at the value of the Higgs boson mass measured by ATLAS, m H =125.4  GeV . The analysis is optimized to measure the signal strengths for individual Higgs boson production processes at this value of m H . They are found to be μ ggF =1.32±0.38 , μ VBF =0.8±0.7 , μ WH =1.0±1.6 , μ ZH =0.1 +3.7 −0.1 , and μ tt ¯ H =1.6 +2.7 −1.8 , for Higgs boson production through gluon fusion, vector-boson fusion, and in association with a W or Z boson or a top-quark pair, respectively. Compared with the previously published ATLAS analysis, the results reported here also benefit from a new energy calibration procedure for photons and the subsequent reduction of the systematic uncertainty on the diphoton mass resolution. No significant deviations from the predictions of the Standard Model are found

    Measurement of flow harmonics with multi-particle cumulants in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    ATLAS measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy in lead–lead collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV are shown using a dataset of approximately 7μb−1 collected at the LHC in 2010. The measurements are performed for charged particles with transversemomenta 0.5 < pT < 20 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range |η| < 2.5. The anisotropy is characterized by the Fourier coefficients, vn, of the charged-particle azimuthal angle distribution for n = 2–4. The Fourier coefficients are evaluated using multi-particle cumulants calculated with the generating function method. Results on the transverse momentum, pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the vn coefficients are presented. The elliptic flow, v2, is obtained from the two-, four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants while higher-order coefficients, v3 and v4, are determined with two- and four-particle cumulants. Flow harmonics vn measured with four-particle cumulants are significantly reduced compared to the measurement involving two-particle cumulants. A comparison to vn measurements obtained using different analysis methods and previously reported by the LHC experiments is also shown. Results of measurements of flow fluctuations evaluated with multiparticle cumulants are shown as a function of transverse momentum and the collision centrality. Models of the initial spatial geometry and its fluctuations fail to describe the flow fluctuations measurements