4,312 research outputs found

    The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma during sepsis-induced lymphopenia

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    Sepsis is one of the most common diseases on intensive care units all over the world and accounts there for the highest mortality rate. One of the hallmarks of sepsis is an accelerated T-cell apoptosis, resulting in a compromised immune state with the inability to eradicate pathogens. This promotes organ damage or even organ failure. A multiple organ dysfunction evolves, which often ends up in septic shock and death. Recently, it was shown that severe T-cell depletion correlates with sepsis mortality. When inhibiting T-cell apoptosis, an increased mouse survival was observed in experimental sepsis. ...Sepsis ist eine der hĂ€ufigsten Erkrankungen auf Intensivstationen weltweit und verursacht dort die höchste MortalitĂ€tsrate. Ein besonderes Kennzeichen der Sepsis ist der rapide Verlust von T-Zellen durch Apoptose. Dies hemmt den Immunstatus des Patienten und bewirkt ein Unvermögen gegen Pathogene anzukĂ€mpfen. Eine Organdysfunktion oder sogar ein multiples Organversagen wird hervorgerufen. Die T-Zelldepletion korreliert mit der hohen SepsismortlitĂ€t und ihre Hemmung fĂŒhrte zu einem verbesserten Überleben in experimenteller Sepsis. ..

    Adjustment to trauma exposure in refugee, displaced, and non-displaced Bosnian women

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    The war in Bosnia resulted in the displacement of millions of civilians, most of them women. Ten years after the civil war, many of them are still living as refugees in their country of origin or abroad. Research on different refugee groups has continuously reported persistent levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other mental-health problems in this population. The present study compared PTSD and self-concept in Bosnian refugee women (n = 29) with women who were internally displaced (IDP; n = 26) and non-displaced women (n = 32). Data were collected using the Bosnian Trauma Questionnaire and four scales assessing self-esteem, perceived incompetence, externality of control attribution, and persistence. IDPs scored significantly higher on PTSD symptoms, externality of control attribution and perceived incompetence, and lower on self-esteem than both refugee and non-displaced women. The level of education most strongly predicted PTSD symptom severity, followed by the type of displacement, and exposure to violence during the war. Associations of self-concept with displacement and psychopathology were inconsistent, with type of displacement predicting control attributions but not other aspects of self-concept and PTSD symptoms being partly related to perceived incompetence and self-esteem. These results support previous findings stating that, in the long run, refugees show better mental health than IDPs, and that witnessing violence is a traumatic experience strongly linked to the development of PTSD symptoms. Results further indicate that education plays an important role in the development of PTSD symptoms. Associations of control attributions and type of displacement were found; these results have not been previously documented in literatur

    An Efficient Method for Calculating the Absorption Enhancement in Solar Cells with Integrated Plasmonic and Photonic Nanoparticles

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    We present a method for calculating the plasmonic and photonic enhancement of the absorption in solar cells. The method involves coupling between a transfer matrix method to describe light propagation in the layered stack and Mie theory for calculating the absorption and angular scattered field distribution from the nanoparticles. We also compare the method to rigorous simulations

    cAMP:From Long-Range Second Messenger to Nanodomain Signalling

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    How cAMP generates hormone-specific effects has been debated for many decades. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensors for cAMP allow real-time imaging of the second messenger in intact cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. This technology has made it possible to directly demonstrate that cAMP signals are compartmentalised. The details of such signal compartmentalisation are still being uncovered, and recent findings reveal a previously unsuspected submicroscopic heterogeneity of intracellular cAMP. A model is emerging where specificity depends on compartmentalisation and where the physiologically relevant signals are those that occur within confined nanodomains, rather than bulk changes in cytosolic cAMP. These findings subvert the classical notion of cAMP signalling and provide a new framework for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches

    Induction of VMAT-1 and TPH-1 Expression Induces Vesicular Accumulation of Serotonin and Protects Cells and Tissue from Cooling/Rewarming Injury

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    DDT1 MF-2 hamster ductus deferens cells are resistant to hypothermia due to serotonin secretion from secretory vesicles and subsequent cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) mediated formation of H2S. We investigated whether the mechanism promoting resistance to hypothermia may be translationally induced in cells vulnerable to cold storage. Thus, VMAT-1 (vesicular monoamino transferase) and TPH-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) were co-transfected in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMAC) and kidney tissue to create a serotonin-vesicular phenotype (named VTSMAC and VTkidney, respectively). Effects on hypothermic damage were assessed. VTSMAC showed a vesicular phenotype and an 8-fold increase in serotonin content and 5-fold increase in its release upon cooling. Cooled VTSMAC produced up to 10 fold higher concentrations of H2S, and were protected from hypothermia, as shown by a 50% reduction of caspase 3/7 activity and 4 times higher survival compared to SMAC. Hypothermic resistance was abolished by the inhibition of CBS activity or blockade of serotonin re-uptake. In VTkidney slices, expression of CBS was 3 fold increased in cold preserved kidney tissue, with two-fold increase in H2S concentration. While cooling induced substantial damage to empty vector transfected kidney as shown by caspase 3/7 activity and loss of FABP1, VTkidney was fully protected and comparable to non-cooled control. Thus, transfection of VMAT-1 and TPH-1 induced vesicular storage of serotonin which is triggered release upon cooling and has protective effects against hypothermia. The vesicular serotonergic phenotype protects against hypothermic damage through re-uptake of serotonin inducing CBS mediated H2S production both in cells and kidney slices

    The Schauinsland CO2 record: 30 years of continental observations and their implications for the variability of the European CO2 budget

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    Since 1972, the German Environment Agency (UBA) has been measuring continuously CO2 concentration at Schauinsland station (southwest Germany, 1205 m asl). Because of its vicinity to biogenic and anthropogenic sources and sinks, the Schauinsland CO2 record shows considerably variability. In order to remove these disturbances and derive the large-scale representative "background" CO2 levels for the respective area (southwest Germany) we perform rigorous data selection based on wind speed and time of day. During the past 30 years, the selected CO2 mixing rations increased by 1.47 ppm per year, following the mean trend in midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The average seasonal cycle (peak-to-peak) amplitude has decreased slightly from 13.8+/-0.6 ppm in the first decade (1972-1981) to 12.8 +/- 0.7 ppm in the last two decades (1982-2001). This is opposite to other northern latitude sites and is attributed to the decrease of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in the catchment area (southwest Germany and France) and its respective change in the seasonal variation. Except for May and June, monthly mean CO2 mixing ratios at Schauinsland are higher by up to 8ppm if compared to marine boundary layer air, mainly as a consequence of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in Europe. The CO2 measurements when combined with continuous 222Rn observations at the same site allow an estimate of the net CO2 flux in the catchment area of Schauinsland: mean seasonal fluxes compare very well with estimates from a process-oriented biosphere model (SIB-2) as well as from an inverse modelling approach (Peylin et al, 2000). Annual CO2 fluxes vary by more than a factor of 2, although atnthropogenic fossil fuel CO2 emissions show interannual variations of only about 10%. The major part of the variability must therefore be associated to interannual changes of biospheric uptake and release, which are on the order of the total fossil fuel emissions in the same area. This has to be taken into account when reliably quantifying and verifying the long-term carbon balance and emission reduction targets in the European Union

    Carbon dioxide and methane in continental Europe: a climatology, and 222Radon-based emission estimates

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    4-year records of gas chromatographic carbon dioxide and methane observations from the continental mountain station Schauninsland in the Black Forest (Germany) are presented. These data are supplemented by continuous atmospheric 222Radon observations. The raw data of CO2 concentration show a large seasonal cycle of about 16ppm with monthly mean wintertime enhancements up to 10ppm higher and summer minima up to 5 ppm lower than the maritime background level in this latitude. These offsets are caused by regional and continental scale CO2 sources and sinks. The mean CH4 concentration at Schauinsland is 31ppb higher than over the Atlantic ocean, due to the European continent acting as a net source of atmospheric CH4 throughout the year. No significant seasonal cylce of methane has been observed. The long term CO2 and CH4 increase rates at Schauinsland are found to be similar to background stations in the northern hemisphere, namely 1.5 ppm CO2/yr and 8 ppb CH4/yr. On the time scale of hours and days, the wintertime concentrations of all three trace gases are highly correlated, the mean ratio of CH4/CO2 is 7.8+/-1.0ppb/ppm. The wintertime monthly mean concentrations offsets relative to the maritime background level show a CH4/CO2 ratio of 6.5+/-1.1 ppb/ppm, thus, not significantly different from the short term ratio. Using the wintertime regressions of CO2 and 222Radon respectively CH4 and 222Radon we estimate winter time CO2 flux densities of 10.4+/-4.3 mmol CO2/m2/hr (from monthly mean offsets) and 6.5+/-2.5 mmol CO2 /m2/hr (from short term fluctuations) and winter time methane flux densities of 0.066+/-0.034 mmol CH4 /m2/hr (from monthly mean offsets) and 0.057 +/-0.022 mmole CH4/m2/hr (from short term fluctuations). These flux estimates are in close agreement to CO2 respectively CH4 emission inventories reported for Germany from statistical data

    Mental health of failed asylum seekers as compared with pending and temporarily accepted asylum seekers

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    Background: Asylum seekers (AS) and refugees often suffer from severe psychopathology in the form of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As PTSD impacts memory functions, and as asylum applications rely on personal accounts, AS with PTSD are at more risk of being rejected than refugees. Methods: We studied the mental health of failed asylum seekers (FAS, N = 40) and a matched sample of AS (N = 40). Participants were administered structured interviews on sociodemographics, flight, exile and standardized questionnaires on PTSD, anxiety, depression and pain. Results: Both samples were severely affected; >80% exhibited at least one clinically significant condition. Conclusion: Given the great vulnerability of these individuals, long and unsettling asylum processes as practised in Western host countries seem problematic, as does the withdrawal of health and social welfare benefits. Finally, high rates of psychopathology amongst FAS indicate that refugee and humanitarian decision-making procedures may be failing to identify those most in need of protectio

    Messung und Bilanzierung anthropogener Treibhausgase in Deutschland

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    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschĂ€ftigt sich mit der regionalen Bilanzierung von anthropogenen Treibhausgasemissionen aus atmosphĂ€rischen Messungen. An den Stationen Schauinsland und Heidelberg (SĂŒdwestdeutschland) sowie Neuglobsow und Zingst (Nordostdeutschland) wurden die CO2-, CH4-, N2O- und 222Rn-MischungsverhĂ€ltnisse ĂŒber mehrere Jahre gemessen. Unter Verwendung von 222Rn als Transport Tracer konnten die CH4- und N2O-Emissionen bilanziert werden. Innerhalb der Unsicherheiten dieser AbschĂ€tzung sind die mittleren CH4-Quelldichten fĂŒr die Einzugsgebiete der vier Stationen mit (0.23±0.07) g CH4 km-2 s-1 identisch, was auf die relativ homogene Bestandsdichte von MilchkĂŒhen, die mit fast 60 zu den CH4-Emissionen der jeweiligen Regionen beitragen, zurĂŒckgefĂŒhrt wird. Bei der Auswertung der N2O-DatensĂ€tze in Heidelberg konnten die EinflĂŒsse lokaler Punktquellen (Kliniken) eliminiert werden, und es wurde eine 50 prozentige Abnahme der N2O-Quelldichte von 1996/97 auf 1998 nachgewiesen. Diese fĂ€llt zeitlich zusammen mit einer dramatischen Reduktion der N2O-Emissionen aus der AdipinsĂ€ureproduktion der BASF AG Ende 1997. Eine quantitative Auswertung der CO2-Emissionen in Heidelberg konnte durch eine Analyse der CO2-Konzentrations- und Isotopenmeßreihen unter Verwendung der Radon-Tracer-Methode erreicht werden. Die aus den atmosphĂ€rischen 14C-Messungen fĂŒr die Jahre 1980 bis 1998 bestimmte fossile CO2-Quelldichte betrĂ€gt im Mittel (510±28) t C km-2 a-1 und zeigt fĂŒr diesen Zeitraum keinen Trend. Dagegen ist die Änderung der Zusammensetzung der eingesetzten fossilen EnergietrĂ€ger (Gas, Erdöl und Kohle) deutlich an der 13C-Signatur des fossilen CO2-Anteils von (-28.6±0.6) ‰ fĂŒr 1982/83 auf (-38.5±1) ‰ fĂŒr 1995 bis 1998 zu erkennen. Die Auswertung der kontinentalen CO2- und 222Rn-Überhöhungen an der Bergstation Schauinsland (Schwarzwald) erlaubte die Bestimmung großrĂ€umiger Netto-CO2-Flußraten