535 research outputs found

    Rocaglates as dual-targeting agents for experimental cerebral malaria

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    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe and rapidly progressing complication of infection by Plasmodium parasites that is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Treatment options are currently few, and intervention with artemisinin (Art) has limited efficacy, a problem that is compounded by the emergence of resistance to Art in Plasmodium parasites. Rocaglates are a class of natural products derived from plants of the Aglaia genus that have been shown to interfere with eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A), ultimately blocking initiation of protein synthesis. Here, we show that the rocaglate CR-1-31B perturbs association of Plasmodium falciparum eIF4A (PfeIF4A) with RNA. CR-1-31B shows potent prophylactic and therapeutic antiplasmodial activity in vivo in mouse models of infection with Plasmodium berghei (CM) and Plasmodium chabaudi (blood-stage malaria), and can also block replication of different clinical isolates of P. falciparum in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo, including drug-resistant P. falciparum isolates. In vivo, a single dosing of CR-1-31B in P. berghei-infected animals is sufficient to provide protection against lethality. CR-1-31B is shown to dampen expression of the early proinflammatory response in myeloid cells in vitro and dampens the inflammatory response in vivo in P. berghei-infected mice. The dual activity of CR-1-31B as an antiplasmodial and as an inhibitor of the inflammatory response in myeloid cells should prove extremely valuable for therapeutic intervention in human cases of CM.We thank Susan Gauthier, Genevieve Perreault, and Patrick Senechal for technical assistance. This work was supported by a research grant (to P.G.) from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (Foundation Grant). J.P. and P.G. are supported by a James McGill Professorship salary award. D.L. is supported by fellowships from the Fonds de recherche sante Quebec, the CIHR Neuroinflammation training program. J.P. is supported by CIHR Research Grant FDN-148366. M.S. is supported by a CIHR Foundation grant. J.A.P. is supported by NIH Grant R35 GM118173. Work at the Boston University Center for Molecular Discovery is supported by Grant R24 GM111625. K.C.K. was supported by a CIHR Foundation Grant and the Canada Research Chair program. (Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); James McGill Professorship salary award; Fonds de recherche sante Quebec; CIHR Neuroinflammation training program; FDN-148366 - CIHR Research Grant; CIHR Foundation grant; R35 GM118173 - NIH; Canada Research Chair program; R24 GM111625

    rp-Process weak-interaction mediated rates of waiting-point nuclei

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    Electron capture and positron decay rates are calculated for neutron-deficient Kr and Sr waiting point nuclei in stellar matter. The calculation is performed within the framework of pn-QRPA model for rp-process conditions. Fine tuning of particle-particle, particle-hole interaction parameters and a proper choice of the deformation parameter resulted in an accurate reproduction of the measured half-lives. The same model parameters were used to calculate stellar rates. Inclusion of measured Gamow-Teller strength distributions finally led to a reliable calculation of weak rates that reproduced the measured half-lives well under limiting conditions. For the rp-process conditions, electron capture and positron decay rates on 72^{72}Kr and 76^{76}Sr are of comparable magnitude whereas electron capture rates on 78^{78}Sr and 74^{74}Kr are 1--2 orders of magnitude bigger than the corresponding positron decay rates. The pn-QRPA calculated electron capture rates on 74^{74}Kr are bigger than previously calculated. The present calculation strongly suggests that, under rp-process conditions, electron capture rates form an integral part of weak-interaction mediated rates and should not be neglected in nuclear reaction network calculations as done previously.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures, 4 tables; Astrophysics and Space Science (2012

    Beta-decay in odd-A and even-even proton-rich Kr isotopes

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    Beta-decay properties of proton-rich odd-A and even-even Krypton isotopes are studied in the framework of a deformed selfconsistent Hartree-Fock calculation with density-dependent Skyrme forces, including pairing correlations between like nucleons in BCS approximation. Residual spin-isospin interactions are consistently included in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels and treated in Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation. The similarities and differences in the treatment of even-even and odd-A nuclei are stressed. Comparison to available experimental information is done for Gamow-Teller strength distributions, summed strengths, and half-lives. The dependence of these observables on deformation is particularly emphasized in a search for signatures of the shape of the parent nucleus.Comment: 29 pages, 16 figure

    Ribosomal oxygenases are structurally conserved from prokaryotes to humans

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    2-Oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases have important roles in the regulation of gene expression via demethylation of N-methylated chromatin components1,2 and in the hydroxylation of transcription factors3 and splicing factor proteins4. Recently, 2OG-dependent oxygenases that catalyse hydroxylation of transfer RNA5,6,7 and ribosomal proteins8 have been shown to be important in translation relating to cellular growth, TH17-cell differentiation and translational accuracy9,10,11,12. The finding that ribosomal oxygenases (ROXs) occur in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans8 raises questions as to their structural and evolutionary relationships. In Escherichia coli, YcfD catalyses arginine hydroxylation in the ribosomal protein L16; in humans, MYC-induced nuclear antigen (MINA53; also known as MINA) and nucleolar protein 66 (NO66) catalyse histidine hydroxylation in the ribosomal proteins RPL27A and RPL8, respectively. The functional assignments of ROXs open therapeutic possibilities via either ROX inhibition or targeting of differentially modified ribosomes. Despite differences in the residue and protein selectivities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ROXs, comparison of the crystal structures of E. coli YcfD and Rhodothermus marinus YcfD with those of human MINA53 and NO66 reveals highly conserved folds and novel dimerization modes defining a new structural subfamily of 2OG-dependent oxygenases. ROX structures with and without their substrates support their functional assignments as hydroxylases but not demethylases, and reveal how the subfamily has evolved to catalyse the hydroxylation of different residue side chains of ribosomal proteins. Comparison of ROX crystal structures with those of other JmjC-domain-containing hydroxylases, including the hypoxia-inducible factor asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH and histone Nε-methyl lysine demethylases, identifies branch points in 2OG-dependent oxygenase evolution and distinguishes between JmjC-containing hydroxylases and demethylases catalysing modifications of translational and transcriptional machinery. The structures reveal that new protein hydroxylation activities can evolve by changing the coordination position from which the iron-bound substrate-oxidizing species reacts. This coordination flexibility has probably contributed to the evolution of the wide range of reactions catalysed by oxygenases

    Labeled EF-Tus for rapid kinetic studies of pretranslocation complex formation

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    The universally conserved translation elongation factor EF-Tu delivers aminoacyl(aa)-tRNA in the form of an aa-tRNA·EF-Tu·GTP ternary complex (TC) to the ribosome where it binds to the cognate mRNA codon within the ribosomal A-site, leading to formation of a pretranslocation (PRE) complex. Here we describe preparation of QSY9 and Cy5 derivatives of the variant E348C-EF-Tu that are functional in translation elongation. Together with fluorophore derivatives of aa-tRNA and of ribosomal protein L11, located within the GTPase associated center (GAC), these labeled EF-Tus allow development of two new FRET assays that permit the dynamics of distance changes between EF-Tu and both L11 (Tu-L11 assay) and aa-tRNA (Tu-tRNA assay) to be determined during the decoding process. We use these assays to examine: (i) the relative rates of EF-Tu movement away from the GAC and from aa-tRNA during decoding, (ii) the effects of the misreading-inducing antibiotics streptomycin and paromomycin on tRNA selection at the A-site, and (iii) how strengthening the binding of aa-tRNA to EF-Tu affects the rate of EF-Tu movement away from L11 on the ribosome. These FRET assays have the potential to be adapted for high throughput screening of ribosomal antibiotics

    Insights into substrate stabilization from snapshots of the peptidyl transferase center of the intact 70S ribosome

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    Protein synthesis is catalyzed in the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), located in the large (50S) subunit of the ribosome. No high-resolution structure of the intact ribosome has contained a complete active site including both A- and P-site tRNAs. In addition, although past structures of the 50S subunit have found no ordered proteins at the PTC, biochemical evidence suggests that specific proteins are capable of interacting with the 3′ ends of tRNA ligands. Here we present structures, at 3.6-Å and 3.5-Å resolution respectively, of the 70S ribosome in complex with A- and P-site tRNAs that mimic pre- and post-peptidyl-transfer states. These structures demonstrate that the PTC is very similar between the 50S subunit and the intact ribosome. They also reveal interactions between the ribosomal proteins L16 and L27 and the tRNA substrates, helping to elucidate the role of these proteins in peptidyl transfer

    Controlled Orientation of Active Sites in a Nanostructured Multienzyme Complex

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    Multistep cascade reactions in nature maximize reaction efficiency by co-assembling related enzymes. Such organization facilitates the processing of intermediates by downstream enzymes. Previously, the studies on multienzyme nanocomplexes assembled on DNA scaffolds demonstrated that closer interenzyme distance enhances the overall reaction efficiency. However, it remains unknown how the active site orientation controlled at nanoscale can have an effect on multienzyme reaction. Here, we show that controlled alignment of active sites promotes the multienzyme reaction efficiency. By genetic incorporation of a non-natural amino acid and two compatible bioorthogonal chemistries, we conjugated mannitol dehydrogenase to formate dehydrogenase with the defined active site arrangement with the residue-level accuracy. The study revealed that the multienzyme complex with the active sites directed towards each other exhibits four-fold higher relative efficiency enhancement in the cascade reaction and produces 60% more D-mannitol than the other complex with active sites directed away from each other.ope

    A functional peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, ICT1, has been recruited into the human mitochondrial ribosome

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    Bioinformatic analysis classifies the human protein encoded by immature colon carcinoma transcript-1 (ICT1) as one of a family of four putative mitochondrial translation release factors. However, this has not been supported by any experimental evidence. As only a single member of this family, mtRF1a, is required to terminate the synthesis of all 13 mitochondrially encoded polypeptides, the true physiological function of ICT1 was unclear. Here, we report that ICT1 is an essential mitochondrial protein, but unlike the other family members that are matrix-soluble, ICT1 has become an integral component of the human mitoribosome. Release-factor assays show that although ICT1 has retained its ribosome-dependent PTH activity, this is codon-independent; consistent with its loss of both domains that promote codon recognition in class-I release factors. Mutation of the GGQ domain common to ribosome-dependent PTHs causes a loss of activity in vitro and, crucially, a loss of cell viability, in vivo. We suggest that ICT1 may be essential for hydrolysis of prematurely terminated peptidyl-tRNA moieties in stalled mitoribosomes
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