2,614 research outputs found

    Analysis of total urinary catecholamines by liquid chromatography: methodology, routine experience and clinical interpretations of results

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    A simple routine method is described for simultaneous assay of total urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine. The catecholamines are pre-purified on a small ion-exchange column, separated by reversed phase ion-pair liquid chromatography, and are quantitated by electrochemical detection. The method was routinely applied to 422 urines. Elevated values were found in four urine specimens obtained from patients with histologically proven phaeochromocytomas. Virtually no interference by endogenous or exogenous compounds was found. Values for urinary catecholamines determined by fluorimetric analysis agreed with those obtained by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Within-day CVs for the compounds ranged from 5.2-11.9%, between-day CVs from 3.3-6.6%. The normal range (95% confidence level) was 20-230 micrograms/24 h for noradrenaline and 1-35 micrograms/24 h for adrenaline

    A Mesoarchean Large Igneous Province on the Eastern Kaapvaal Craton (Southern Africa) Confirmed by Metavolcanic Rocks from Kubuta, Eswatini

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    Mesoarchean magmatism is widespread on the eastern margin of the Kaapvaal Craton, but its origin is still poorly understood, mainly because geochemical data is rare. To shed some light on the source of this Mesoarchean magmatism and to relate different Mesoarchean volcanic sequences to each other, we provide major and trace element data as well as Hf-Nd isotope compositions of amphibolites sampled close to the Kubuta Ranch in south-central Eswatini. These amphibolites, so far, were of unknown correlation to any volcanic sequence in Eswatini or South Africa. Hence, the aim of our study is to characterize the mantle source composition of these volcanic rocks and, furthermore, to constrain their genetic relation to other volcanic sequences in Eswatini and South Africa. Our findings reveal that, based on coherent trace element patterns and similar Nd isotope characteristics, the Kubuta volcanic rocks can be genetically linked to the ca. 3.0 Ga Usushwana Igneous Complex in West-Central Eswatini and the ca. 2.9 Ga Hlagothi Complex located in the KwaZulu-Natal province. In contrast, the coeval ca. 3.0 Ga Nsuze and ca. 2.9 Ga Mozaan Groups (Pongola Supergroup) of south-central Eswatini and northern KwaZulu-Natal province have slightly enriched compositions compared to the newly sampled Kubuta volcanic rocks. Our results suggest that the Nsuze and Mozaan Groups were sourced from a primitive mantle reservoir, whereas the Usushwana, Hlagothi, and Kubuta mafic rocks were derived by melting of a more depleted mantle source comparable to that of modern depleted MORB. Furthermore, our assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) calculations and Nd isotope constraints reveal that some samples were contaminated by the crust and that the crustal contaminants possibly represent felsic rocks related to the ca. 3.5 Ga crust-forming event in the Ancient Gneiss Complex. Alternatively, melting of a metasomatized mantle or plume-lithospheric mantle interaction may also produce the trace element and isotopic compositions observed in the samples. From a synthesis of our geochemical observations and age data from the literature, we propose a refined petrogenetic model, for a continental flood basalt setting in a Mesoarchean large igneous province on the eastern Kaapvaal Craton. Our petrogenetic model envisages two magma pulses sourced from a primitive mantle reservoir that led to the formation of the Nsuze (first) and Mozaan (second) lavas. Conductive heating of ambient depleted mantle by the mantle plumes caused partial melting that led to the formation of the Usushwana Igneous Complex associated with the first magmatic event (Nsuze) and the Hlagothi Igneous Complex associated with the second magmatic event (Mozaan). However, due to lacking age data of sufficient resolution, it is not possible to affiliate the Kubuta lavas to either the first or the second magmatic event

    Autotaxin and LPA Receptors Represent Potential Molecular Targets for the Radiosensitization of Murine Glioma through Effects on Tumor Vasculature

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    Despite wide margins and high dose irradiation, unresectable malignant glioma (MG) is less responsive to radiation and is uniformly fatal. We previously found that cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is a molecular target for radiosensitizing cancer through the vascular endothelium. Autotaxin (ATX) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors are downstream from cPLA2 and highly expressed in MG. Using the ATX and LPA receptor inhibitor, α-bromomethylene phosphonate LPA (BrP-LPA), we studied ATX and LPA receptors as potential molecular targets for the radiosensitization of tumor vasculature in MG. Treatment of Human Umbilical Endothelial cells (HUVEC) and mouse brain microvascular cells bEND.3 with 5 µmol/L BrP-LPA and 3 Gy irradiation showed decreased clonogenic survival, tubule formation, and migration. Exogenous addition of LPA showed radioprotection that was abrogated in the presence of BrP-LPA. In co-culture experiments using bEND.3 and mouse GL-261 glioma cells, treatment with BrP-LPA reduced Akt phosphorylation in both irradiated cell lines and decreased survival and migration of irradiated GL-261 cells. Using siRNA to knock down LPA receptors LPA1, LPA2 or LPA3 in HUVEC, we demonstrated that knockdown of LPA2 but neither LPA1 nor LPA3 led to increased viability and proliferation. However, knockdown of LPA1 and LPA3 but not LPA2 resulted in complete abrogation of tubule formation implying that LPA1 and LPA3 on endothelial cells are likely targets of BrP-LPA radiosensitizing effect. Using heterotopic tumor models of GL-261, mice treated with BrP-LPA and irradiation showed a tumor growth delay of 6.8 days compared to mice treated with irradiation alone indicating that inhibition of ATX and LPA receptors may significantly improve malignant glioma response to radiation therapy. These findings identify ATX and LPA receptors as molecular targets for the development of radiosensitizers for MG

    Detection of CN gas in Interstellar Object 2I/Borisov

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    The detection of Interstellar Objects passing through the Solar System offers the promise of constraining the physical and chemical processes involved in planetary formation in other extrasolar systems. While the effect of outgassing by 1I/2017 U1 ('Oumuamua) was dynamically observed, no direct detection of the ejected material was made. The discovery of the active interstellar comet 2I/Borisov means spectroscopic investigations of the sublimated ices is possible for this object. We report the first detection of gas emitted by an interstellar comet via the near-UV emission of CN from 2I/Borisov at a heliocentric distance of rr = 2.7 au on 2019 September 20. The production rate was found to be Q(CN) = (3.7±0.4)×1024(3.7\pm0.4)\times10^{24} s1^{-1}, using a simple Haser model with an outflow velocity of 0.5 km s1^{-1}. No other emission was detected, with an upper limit to the production rate of C2_2 of 4×10244\times10^{24} s1^{-1}. The spectral reflectance slope of the dust coma over 39003900 \AA\ <λ<6000< \lambda< 6000 \AA \ is steeper than at longer wavelengths, as found for other comets. Broad band RcR_c photometry on 2019 September 19 gave a dust production rate of Afρ=143±10Af\rho=143\pm10 cm. Modelling of the observed gas and dust production rates constrains the nuclear radius to 0.73.30.7-3.3 km assuming reasonable nuclear properties. Overall, we find the gas, dust and nuclear properties for the first active Interstellar Object are similar to normal Solar System comets.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

    Computed tomography-osteoabsorptiometry for assessing the density distribution of subchondral bone as a measure of long-term mechanical adaptation in individual joints

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    To estimate subchondral mineralisation patterns which represent the long-term loading history of individual joints, a method has been developed employing computed tomography (CT) which permits repeated examination of living joints. The method was tested on 5 knee, 3 sacroiliac, 3 ankle and 5 shoulder joints and then investigated with X-ray densitometry. A CT absorptiometric presentation and maps of the area distribution of the subchondral bone density areas were derived using an image analyser. Comparison of the results from both X-ray densitometry and CT-absorptiometry revealed almost identical pictures of distribution of the subchondral bone density. The method may be used to examine subchondral mineralisation as a measure of the mechanical adaptability of joints in the living subject

    The First Magnetic Fields

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    We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars is discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early generation of stars or active galactic nuclei can be dispersed into the intergalactic medium.Comment: Accepted for publication in Space Science Reviews. Pdf can be also downloaded from http://canopus.cnu.ac.kr/ryu/cosmic-mag1.pd

    Models of the SL9 Impacts II. Radiative-hydrodynamic Modeling of the Plume Splashback

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    We model the plume "splashback" phase of the SL9 collisions with Jupiter using the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamic code. We modified the Zeus code to include gray radiative transport, and we present validation tests. We couple the infalling mass and momentum fluxes of SL9 plume material (from paper I) to a jovian atmospheric model. A strong and complex shock structure results. The modeled shock temperatures agree well with observations, and the structure and evolution of the modeled shocks account for the appearance of high excitation molecular line emission after the peak of the continuum light curve. The splashback region cools by radial expansion as well as by radiation. The morphology of our synthetic continuum light curves agree with observations over a broad wavelength range (0.9 to 12 microns). A feature of our ballistic plume is a shell of mass at the highest velocities, which we term the "vanguard". Portions of the vanguard ejected on shallow trajectories produce a lateral shock front, whose initial expansion accounts for the "third precursors" seen in the 2-micron light curves of the larger impacts, and for hot methane emission at early times. Continued propagation of this lateral shock approximately reproduces the radii, propagation speed, and centroid positions of the large rings observed at 3-4 microns by McGregor et al. The portion of the vanguard ejected closer to the vertical falls back with high z-component velocities just after maximum light, producing CO emission and the "flare" seen at 0.9 microns. The model also produces secondary maxima ("bounces") whose amplitudes and periods are in agreement with observations.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures (figs 3 and 4 in color), accepted for Ap.J. latex, version including full figures at: http://oobleck.tn.cornell.edu/jh/ast/papers/slplume2-20.ps.g

    Pathway to the Square Kilometre Array - The German White Paper -

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    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is the most ambitious radio telescope ever planned. With a collecting area of about a square kilometre, the SKA will be far superior in sensitivity and observing speed to all current radio facilities. The scientific capability promised by the SKA and its technological challenges provide an ideal base for interdisciplinary research, technology transfer, and collaboration between universities, research centres and industry. The SKA in the radio regime and the European Extreme Large Telescope (E-ELT) in the optical band are on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) and have been recognised as the essential facilities for European research in astronomy. This "White Paper" outlines the German science and R&D interests in the SKA project and will provide the basis for future funding applications to secure German involvement in the Square Kilometre Array.Comment: Editors: H. R. Kl\"ockner, M. Kramer, H. Falcke, D.J. Schwarz, A. Eckart, G. Kauffmann, A. Zensus; 150 pages (low resolution- and colour-scale images), published in July 2012, language English (including a foreword and an executive summary in German), the original file is available via the MPIfR homepag

    The relationship between perceived training and development and employee retention:the mediating role of work attitudes

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    This paper considers how utilizing a model of job-related affect can be used to explain the processes through which perceived training and development influence employee retention. We applied Russell’s model of core affect to categorize four different forms of work attitude, and positioned these as mediators of the relationship between perceived training and development and intention to stay. Using data from 1,191 employees across seven organizations, multilevel analyses found that job satisfaction, employee engagement, and change-related anxiety were significantly associated with intention to stay, and fully mediated the relationship between perceived training and development and intention to stay. Contrary to our hypotheses, emotional exhaustion was not significantly associated with intention to stay nor acted as a mediator when the other attitudes were included. These findings show the usefulness of Russell’s model of core affect in explaining the link between training and development and employee retention. Moreover, the findings collectively suggest that studies examining employee retention should include a wider range of work attitudes that highlight pleasant forms of affect
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