102 research outputs found

    Development and Internal Validation of Novel Nomograms Based on Benign Prostatic Obstruction-Related Parameters to Predict the Risk of Prostate Cancer at First Prostate Biopsy

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    The present study aimed to determine the ability of novel nomograms based onto readily-available clinical parameters, like those related to benign prostatic obstruction (BPO), in predicting the outcome of first prostate biopsy (PBx). To do so, we analyzed our Internal Review Board-approved prospectively-maintained PBx database. Patients with PSA>20 ng/ml were excluded because of their high risk of harboring prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 2577 were found to be eligible for study analyses. The ability of age, PSA, digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate volume (PVol), post-void residual urinary volume (PVR), and peak flow rate (PFR) in predicting PCa and clinically-significant PCa (CSPCa)was tested by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The predictive accuracy of the multivariate models was assessed using receiver operator characteristic curves analysis, calibration plot, and decision-curve analyses (DCA). Nomograms predicting PCa and CSPCa were built using the coefficients of the logit function. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that all variables but PFR significantly predicted PCA and CSPCa. The addition of the BPO-related variables PVol and PVR to a model based on age, PSA and DRE findings increased the model predictive accuracy from 0.664 to 0.768 for PCa and from 0.7365 to 0.8002 for CSPCa. Calibration plot demonstrated excellent models' concordance. DCA demonstrated that the model predicting PCa is of value between ~15 and ~80% threshold probabilities, whereas the one predicting CSPCa is of value between ~10 and ~60% threshold probabilities. In conclusion, our novel nomograms including PVR and PVol significantly increased the accuracy of the model based on age, PSA and DRE in predicting PCa and CSPCa at first PBx. Being based onto parameters commonly assessed in the initial evaluation of men ‚Äúprostate health,‚ÄĚ these novel nomograms could represent a valuable and easy-to-use tool for physicians to help patients to understand their risk of harboring PCa and CSPCa

    Patient's adherence on pharmacological therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is different: Is combination therapy better than monotherapy

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    Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed that the non-adherence to the pharmacological therapy of patients affected by BPH-associated LUTS increased the risk of clinical progression of BPH. We examined the patients adherence to pharmacological therapy and its clinical consequences in men with BPH-associated LUTS looking at the differences between drug classes comparing mono vs combination therapy. METHODS: A retrospective, population-based cohort study, using prescription administrative database and hospital discharge codes from a total of 1.5 million Italian men. Patients ‚Č• 40 years, administered alpha-blockers (AB) and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), alone or in combination (CT), for BPH-associated LUTS were analyzed. The 1-year and long term adherence together with the analyses of hospitalization rates for BPH and BPH-related surgery were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model and Pearson chi square test. RESULTS: Patients exposed to at least 6 months of therapy had a 1-year overall adherence of 29 % (monotherapy AB 35 %, monotherapy 5ARI 18 %, CT 9 %). Patient adherence progressively declined to 15 %, 8 % and 3 % for AB, 5ARI, and CT, respectively at the fifth year of follow up. Patients on CT had a higher discontinuation rate along all the follow-up compared to those under monotherapy with ABs or 5ARIs (all p < 0.0001). Moreover, CT was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for BPH-related surgery (HR 0.94; p < 0.0001) compared to AB monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to pharmacological therapy of BPH-associated LUTS is low and varies depending on drugs class. Patients under CT have a higher likelihood of discontinuing treatment for a number of reasons that should be better investigated. Our study suggests that new strategies aiming to increase patient's adherence to the prescribed treatment are necessary in order to prevent BPH progression

    Adherence to the EAU guidelines on Penile Cancer Treatment: European, multicentre, retrospective study

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    16siPurpose: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for penile cancer (PC) are exclusively based on retrospective studies and have low grades of recommendation. The aim of this study was to assess the adherence to guidelines by investigating the management strategies for primary tumours and inguinal lymph nodes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 176 PC patients who underwent surgery in eight European centres from 2010 to 2016. The stage and grade were assessed according to the 2009 AJCC‚ÄďUICC TNM classification system. To assess adherence rates, we compared theoretical and practical adherence to the EAU guidelines. Results: Overall, 176 patients were enrolled. Partial amputation was the most frequent surgical approach (39%). 53.7% of tumours were stage Tis-T1b and the remaining 46.3% were stage T2-T4. Palpable lymph nodes were detected in 30.1% of patients and 45.1% underwent lymphadenectomy (LY). A sizeable group of tumours (43.2%) were N0. For primary treatment, adherence to the EAU guidelines was good (66%). In non-adherent cases, reasons for discrepancy were patient‚Äôs choice (17%), surgeon‚Äôs preference (36%), and other causes (47%). For LY, the guideline adherence was 70%, with either patient‚Äôs or surgeon‚Äôs choice or other causes accounting for discrepancy in 28, 20, and 52% of non-adherent cases, respectively. Conclusion: Adherence to the EAU guidelines for PC was quite high across the eight European centres involved in the study. This notwithstanding, strategies for further improvement should be developed and evenly adopted.openopenBada M.; Berardinelli F.; Nyirady P.; Varga J.; Ditonno P.; Battaglia M.; Chiodini P.; De Nunzio C.; Tema G.; Veccia A.; Antonelli A.; Cindolo L.; Simeone C.; Puliatti S.; Micali S.; Schips L.Bada, M.; Berardinelli, F.; Nyirady, P.; Varga, J.; Ditonno, P.; Battaglia, M.; Chiodini, P.; De Nunzio, C.; Tema, G.; Veccia, A.; Antonelli, A.; Cindolo, L.; Simeone, C.; Puliatti, S.; Micali, S.; Schips, L

    Retroperitoneal extension of massive ulcerated testicular seminoma through the inguinal canal: A case report.

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    Introduction: Testicular cancers represent about 5% of all urological malignancies and 1-1.5% of all male neoplasms. Most of the testicular cancers are localized (68%) at diagnosis. Bulky masses in the scrotum are rare. We present a rare case of bulky testicular cancer with retroperitoneal spread through the inguinal canal. Case report: A 44-year-old man came to the emergency department referring weakness and the presence of a scrotal mass. At physical examination, a voluminous mass was found, with necrotic phenomena within the scrotum. Abdomen was tense and sore. Abdominal CT scan revealed a bulky testicular mass spreading to the retroperitoneal space through the inguinal canal with node enlargement. Patient underwent orchiectomy with excision of infiltrated scrotum skin. Histologic diagnosis confirmed a typical form seminoma. The patient was then treated with a cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with a partial response. The patient recently relapsed and he is being treated with a new line of chemotherapy and subsequent surgery with or without radiotherapy. Conclusions: We described a rare presentation of testicular cancer. This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to rare testis tumour presentation and early diagnosis for testicular cancers

    Efficacy and safety of intravesical fibrin glue instillation for management of patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis: 12-months results. A promising therapy for hemorrhagic cystitis.

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    Objectives: Fibrin glue (FG) endo-vesical application seems to be a promising therapy for hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of FG instillation in patients with HC. Methods: Patients with HC not responsive to conventional treatments (bladder irrigation, catheterization, blood transfusions, hyperhydration and endoscopic coagulation) were treated with FG endo-vesical instillation (April 2017- December 2018). FG was prepared from 120 mL of patient blood with the Vivostat¬ģ system. After standard cystoscopy, bladder was insufflated with carbon dioxide (CO2) according to bladder compliance and autologous FG was applied to bladder wall and bleeding sites. Results: Ten patients included with grade 2 or higher HC secondary to bone marrow graft for hematological diseases (30%) or to actinic cystitis caused by prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) (70%). The median HC onset time after RT was 4.8 (IQR 3.9- 6.3) years and 35 (IQR 27.5-62.5) days after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Five patients had a complete response after one treatment, three patients had clinical response (grade < 2 hematuria, amelioration of symptoms), one of them required catheterization and bladder irrigation. One patient required a second instillation of FG achieving a clinical response. No adverse events related to the procedure were recorded, however one patient died for causes not related to the procedure. Median Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index was 13.0 (IQR 11.0-15.0) pre-operatively and 4.0 (IQR 2.0-5.0) post-operatively. Conclusions: Our study showed that, even in hematological patients, autologous FG instillation maybe a safe, repeatable and effective treatment modality in patients with refractory HC

    Leydig Cell Tumor in a 53-Year-Old Patient with Gynecomastia and Gynecodynia: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Introduction: Testicular cancer is a rare neoplasm that afflicts men particularly in specific age-range. 5% to 6% of these tumors are non-germ cell tumors, in which Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are included. Case Presentation: This case report describes an uncommon presentation of a Leydig tumor cell in a 53 year old man with gynecomastia and gynecodynia Conclusions: LCT is a rare neoplasm of the testis; its origin is still unknown and it could also present out of the normal range-age with the highest incidence. The radical surgery is still preferred, even if an organ sparing approach is reported. There are a lot of reports and case series in literature about LCT's but our work focus the attention of uncommon signs of presentation of this disease, expecially gynecodynia

    Artificial intelligence and radiomics in evaluation of kidney lesions: a comprehensive literature review

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    : Radiomics and artificial intelligence (AI) may increase the differentiation of benign from malignant kidney lesions, differentiation of angiomyolipoma (AML) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), differentiation of oncocytoma from RCC, differentiation of different subtypes of RCC, to predict Fuhrman grade, to predict gene mutation through molecular biomarkers and to predict treatment response in metastatic RCC undergoing immunotherapy. Neural networks analyze imaging data. Statistical, geometrical, textural features derived are giving quantitative data of contour, internal heterogeneity and gray zone features of lesions. A comprehensive literature review was performed, until July 2022. Studies investigating the diagnostic value of radiomics in differentiation of renal lesions, grade prediction, gene alterations, molecular biomarkers and ongoing clinical trials have been analyzed. The application of AI and radiomics could lead to improved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy in detecting and differentiating between renal lesions. Standardization of scanner protocols will improve preoperative differentiation between benign, low-risk cancers and clinically significant renal cancers and holds the premises to enhance the diagnostic ability of imaging tools to characterize renal lesions

    Radical penectomy, a compromise for life: results from the PECAD study

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    The use of organ sparing strategies to treat penile cancer (PC) is currently supported by evidence that has indicated the safety, efficacy and benefit of this surgery. However, radical penectomy still represents up to 15-20% of primary tumor treatments in PC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of radical penectomy in PC patients.Background: The use of organ sparing strategies to treat penile cancer (PC) is currently supported by evidence that has indicated the safety, efficacy and benefit of this surgery. However, radical penectomy still represents up to 15-20% of primary tumor treatments in PC patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of radical penectomy in PC patients. Methods: Data from a retrospective multicenter study (PEnile Cancer ADherence study, PECAD Study) on PC patients treated at 13 European and American urological centers (Hospital \u201cSant'Andrea\u201d, Sapienza University, Roma, Italy; \u201cG.D'Annunzio\u201d University, Chieti and ASL 2 Abruzzo, Hospital \u201cS. Pio da Pietrelcina\u201d, Vasto, Italy; Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; Hospital of Budapest, Hungary; Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Urology and Andrology Unit II, University of Bari, Italy; Hospital \u201cSpedali Civili\u201d, Brescia, Italy; Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; University of Modena &amp; Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; Ceara Cancer Institute, Fortaleza, Brazil; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; Maria Sk\u142odowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center, Warsaw, Poland) between 2010 and 2016 were used. Medical records of patients who specifically underwent radical penectomy were reviewed to identify main clinical and pathological variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 1- and 5-year OS and DFS. Results: Of the entire cohort of 425 patients, 72 patients (16.9%) treated with radical penectomy were extracted and were considered for the analysis. The median age was 64.5 (IQR, 57.5-73.2) years. Of all, 41 (56.9%) patients had pT3/pT4 and 31 (43.1%) pT1/pT2. Moreover, 36 (50.0%) were classified as pN1-3 and 5 (6.9%) M1. Furthermore, 61 (84.7%) had a high grade (G2-G3) with 6 (8.3%) positive surgical margins. The 1- and 5-year OS rates were respectively 73.3% and 59.9%, while the 1- and 5-year DFS rates were respectively 67.3% and 35.1%. Conclusions: PC is an aggressive cancer particularly in more advanced stage. Overall, more than a third of patients do not survive at 5 years and more than 60% report a disease recurrence, despite the use of a radical treatment

    Diagnosis of prostate cancer with magnetic resonance imaging in men treated with 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors

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    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to evaluate if exposure to 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) modifies the effect of MRI for the diagnosis of clinically significant Prostate Cancer (csPCa) (ISUP Gleason grade &gt;= 2).Methods This study is a multicenter cohort study including patients undergoing prostate biopsy and MRI at 24 institutions between 2013 and 2022. Multivariable analysis predicting csPCa with an interaction term between 5-ARIs and PIRADS score was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative (NPV) and positive (PPV) predictive values of MRI were compared in treated and untreated patients.Results 705 patients (9%) were treated with 5-ARIs [median age 69 years, Interquartile range (IQR): 65, 73; median PSA 6.3 ng/ml, IQR 4.0, 9.0; median prostate volume 53 ml, IQR 40, 72] and 6913 were 5-ARIs naive (age 66 years, IQR 60, 71; PSA 6.5 ng/ml, IQR 4.8, 9.0; prostate volume 50 ml, IQR 37, 65). MRI showed PIRADS 1-2, 3, 4, and 5 lesions in 141 (20%), 158 (22%), 258 (37%), and 148 (21%) patients treated with 5-ARIs, and 878 (13%), 1764 (25%), 2948 (43%), and 1323 (19%) of untreated patients (p &lt; 0.0001). No difference was found in csPCa detection rates, but diagnosis of high-grade PCa (ISUP GG &gt;= 3) was higher in treated patients (23% vs 19%, p = 0.013). We did not find any evidence of interaction between PIRADS score and 5-ARIs exposure in predicting csPCa. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of PIRADS &gt;= 3 were 94%, 29%, 46%, and 88% in treated patients and 96%, 18%, 43%, and 88% in untreated patients, respectively.Conclusions Exposure to 5-ARIs does not affect the association of PIRADS score with csPCa. Higher rates of high-grade PCa were detected in treated patients, but most were clearly visible on MRI as PIRADS 4 and 5 lesions.Trial registration The present study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT05078359
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