27 research outputs found

    Modulation of the glyoxalase system in the aging model Podospora anserina : effects on growth and lifespan

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    The eukaryotic glyoxalase system consists of two enzymatic components, glyoxalase I (lactoylglutathionelyase) and glyoxalase II (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase). These enzymes are dedicated to the removal of toxic alpha-oxoaldehydes like methylglyoxal (MG). MG is formed as a by-product of glycolysis and MG toxicity results from its damaging capability leading to modifications of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. An efficient removal of MG appears to be essential to ensure cellular functionality and viability. Here we study the effects of the genetic modulation of genes encoding the components of the glyoxalase system in the filamentous ascomycete and aging model Podospora anserina. Overexpression of PaGlo1 leads to a lifespan reduction on glucose rich medium, probably due to depletion of reduced glutathione. Deletion of PaGlo1 leads to hypersensitivity against MG added to the growth medium. A beneficial effect on lifespan is observed when both PaGlo1 and PaGlo2 are overexpressed and the corresponding strains are grown on media containing increased glucose concentrations. Notably, the double mutant has a ‚Äėhealthy‚Äô phenotype without physiological impairments. Moreover, PaGlo1/PaGlo2_OEx strains are not long-lived on media containing standard glucose concentrations suggesting a tight correlation between the efficiency and capacity to remove MG within the cell, the level of available glucose and lifespan. Overall, our results identify the up-regulation of both components of the glyoxalase system as an effective intervention to increase lifespan in P. anserina. Key words: Podospora anserina, aging, lifespan, glycation, glucose, methylglyoxal, advanced glycation end product

    Alternative Oxidase Dependent Respiration Leads to an Increased Mitochondrial Content in Two Long-Lived Mutants of the Ageing Model Podospora anserina

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    The retrograde response constitutes an important signalling pathway from mitochondria to the nucleus which induces several genes to allow compensation of mitochondrial impairments. In the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina, an example for such a response is the induction of a nuclear-encoded and iron-dependent alternative oxidase (AOX) occurring when cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) dependent respiration is affected. Several long-lived mutants are known which predominantly or exclusively respire via AOX. Here we show that two AOX-utilising mutants, grisea and PaCox17::ble, are able to compensate partially for lowered OXPHOS efficiency resulting from AOX-dependent respiration by increasing mitochondrial content. At the physiological level this is demonstrated by an elevated oxygen consumption and increased heat production. However, in the two mutants, ATP levels do not reach WT levels. Interestingly, mutant PaCox17::ble is characterized by a highly increased release of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide. Both grisea and PaCox17::ble contain elevated levels of mitochondrial proteins involved in quality control, i. e. LON protease and the molecular chaperone HSP60. Taken together, our work demonstrates that AOX-dependent respiration in two mutants of the ageing model P. anserina is linked to a novel mechanism involved in the retrograde response pathway, mitochondrial biogenesis, which might also play an important role for cellular maintenance in other organisms

    Improving penicillin biosynthesis in Penicillium chrysogenum by glyoxalase overproduction

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    <p>Genetic engineering of fungal cell factories mainly focuses on manipulating enzymes of the product pathway or primary metabolism. However, despite the use of strong promoters or strains containing the genes of interest in multiple copies, the desired strongly enhanced enzyme levels are often not obtained.</p><p>Here we present a novel strategy to improve penicillin biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum by reducing reactive and toxic metabolic by-products, 2-oxoaldehydes. This was achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding glyoxalase I and II, which resulted in a 10% increase in penicillin titers relative to the control strain.</p><p>The protein levels of two key enzymes of penicillin biosynthesis, isopenicillin N synthase and isopenicillin N acyltransferase, were increased in the glyoxalase transformants, whereas their transcript levels remained unaltered. These results suggest that directed intracellular reduction of 2-oxoaldehydes prolongs the functional lifetime of these enzymes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p>

    Synthetic Quantitative Array Technology Identifies the Ubp3-Bre5 Deubiquitinase Complex as a Negative Regulator of Mitophagy

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    Mitophagy is crucial to ensuring mitochondrial quality control. However, the molecular mechanism and regulation of mitophagy are still not fully understood. Here, we developed a quantitative methodology termed synthetic quantitative array (SQA) technology, which allowed us to perform a genome-wide screen for modulators of rapamycin-induced mitophagy in S. cerevisiae. SQA technology can be easily employed for other enzyme-based reporter systems and widely applied in yeast research. We identified 86 positive and 10 negative regulators of mitophagy. Moreover, SQA-based analysis of non-selective autophagy revealed that 63 of these regulators are specific for mitophagy and 33 regulate autophagy in general. The Ubp3-Bre5 deubiquitination complex was found to inhibit mitophagy but, conversely, to promote other types of autophagy, including ribophagy. This complex translocates dynamically to mitochondria upon induction of mitophagy. These findings point to a role of ubiquitination in mitophagy in yeast and suggest a reciprocal regulation of distinct autophagy pathways

    Western blot analysis of mitochondrial PaLON protease and the molecular chaperone HSP60.

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    <p><b>A</b> Mitochondrial proteins in WT and mutants grisea and <i>PaCox17</i>::ble were analysed with antibodies against HSP60 after transfer to a PVDF membrane. HSP60 levels are increased in the two mutants. <b>B</b> Protein levels of LON protease (PaLON) are moderately increased in the mutants compared to the WT. Below each immunodetection a densitometric analysis of signal intensities (x-fold level compared to the WT) is shown. Intensities of the PaPORIN signals were used for normalisation. UniProt accession numbers: PaLON: B2AZ54; PaHSP60: B2B270 and PaPORIN: B2B736.</p