1,075 research outputs found

    Isotope shift in the Sulfur electron affinity: observation and theory

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    The electron affinities eA(S) are measured for the two isotopes 32S and 34S (16752.9753(41) and 16752.9776(85) cm-1, respectively). The isotope shift in the electron affinity is found to be positive, eA(34S)-eA(32S) = +0.0023(70) cm-1, but the uncertainty allows for the possibility that it may be either "normal" (eA(34S) > eA(32S)) or "anomalous" (eA(34S) < eA(32S)). The isotope shift is estimated theoretically using elaborate correlation models, monitoring the electron affinity and the mass polarization term expectation value. The theoretical analysis predicts a very large specific mass shift that counterbalances the normal mass shift and produces an anomalous isotope shift, eA(34S)-eA(32S) = - 0.0053(24) cm-1. The observed and theoretical residual isotope shifts agree with each other within the estimated uncertainties.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figure

    The Immunomodulator 1-Methyltryptophan Drives Tryptophan Catabolism Toward the Kynurenic Acid Branch

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    Background: Animal model studies revealed that the application of 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT), a tryptophan (TRP) analog, surprisingly increased plasma levels of the TRP metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA). Under inflammatory conditions, KYNA has been shown to mediate various immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, the present study aims to confirm and clarify the effects of 1-MT on TRP metabolism in mice as well as in humans. Methods: Splenocytes from Balb/C or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase knockout (IDO1−/−) mice or whole human blood were stimulated with 1-MT for 6, 24, or 36 h. C57BL/6 mice received 1-MT in drinking water for 5 days. Cell-free supernatants and plasma were analyzed for TRP and its metabolites by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results: 1-MT treatment induced an increase in TRP and its metabolite, KYNA in Balb/C, IDO−/− mice, and in human blood. Concurrently, the intermediate metabolite kynurenine (KYN), as well as the KYN/TRP ratio, were reduced after 1-MT treatment. The effects of 1-MT on TRP metabolites were similar after the in vivo application of 1-MT to C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions: The data indicate that 1-MT induced an increase of KYNA ex vivo and in vivo confirming previously described results. Furthermore, the results of IDO−/− mice indicate that this effect seems not to be mediated by IDO1. Due to the proven immunomodulatory properties of KYNA, a shift toward this branch of the kynurenine pathway (KP) may be one potential mode of action by 1-MT and should be considered for further applications

    Relating on-shell and off-shell formalism in perturbative quantum field theory

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    In the on-shell formalism (mostly used in perturbative quantum field theory) the entries of the time ordered product T are on-shell fields (i.e. the basic fields satisfy the free field equations). With that, (multi)linearity of T is incompatible with the Action Ward identity. This can be circumvented by using the off-shell formalism in which the entries of T are off-shell fields. To relate on- and off-shell formalism correctly, a map sigma from on-shell fields to off-shell fields was introduced axiomatically by Duetsch and Fredenhagen. In that paper it was shown that, in the case of one real scalar field in N=4 dimensional Minkowski space, these axioms have a unique solution. However, this solution was given there only recursively. We solve this recurrence relation and give a fully explicit expression for sigma in the cases of the scalar, Dirac and gauge fields for arbitrary values of the dimension N.Comment: The case of gauge fields was added. 16 page

    Studying the role of fascin-1 in mechanically stressed podocytes

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    Glomerular hypertension causes glomerulosclerosis via the loss of podocytes, which are challenged by increased mechanical load. We have demonstrated that podocytes are mechanosensitive. However, the response of podocytes to mechanical stretching remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that the actin-bundling protein fascin-1 plays an important role in podocytes that are exposed to mechanical stress. Immunofluorescence staining revealed colocalization of fascin-1 and nephrin in mouse kidney sections. In cultured mouse podocytes fascin-1 was localized along actin fibers and filopodia in stretched and unstretched podocytes. The mRNA and protein levels of fascin-1 were not affected by mechanical stress. By Western blot and 2D-gelelectrophoresis we observed that phospho-fascin-1 was significantly downregulated after mechanical stretching. It is known that phosphorylation at serine 39 (S39) regulates the bundling activity of fascin-1, e.g. required for filopodia formation. Podocytes expressing wild type GFP-fascin-1 and non-phosphorylatable GFP-fascin-1-S39A showed marked filopodia formation, being absent in podocytes expressing phosphomimetic GFP-fascin-1-S39D. Finally, the immunofluorescence signal of phosphorylated fascin-1 was strongly reduced in glomeruli of patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls. In summary, mechanical stress dephosphorylates fascin-1 in podocytes in vitro and in vivo thereby fascin-1 may play an important role in the adaptation of podocytes to mechanical forces

    Environmental Factors Affecting the Expression of pilAB as Well as the Proteome and Transcriptome of the Grass Endophyte Azoarcus sp. Strain BH72

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    gene encoding the structural protein of type IV pili that are essential for plant colonization appears to be regulated in a population density-dependent manner.. The expression of one of them was shown to be induced in plant roots. sp. to analyze mechanisms and molecules involved in the population-dependent gene expression in this endophyte in future
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