6 research outputs found

    Albiglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Harmony Outcomes): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial

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    Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists differ in chemical structure, duration of action, and in their effects on clinical outcomes. The cardiovascular effects of once-weekly albiglutide in type 2 diabetes are unknown. We aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of albiglutide in preventing cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Methods: We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 610 sites across 28 countries. We randomly assigned patients aged 40 years and older with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (at a 1:1 ratio) to groups that either received a subcutaneous injection of albiglutide (30‚Äď50 mg, based on glycaemic response and tolerability) or of a matched volume of placebo once a week, in addition to their standard care. Investigators used an interactive voice or web response system to obtain treatment assignment, and patients and all study investigators were masked to their treatment allocation. We hypothesised that albiglutide would be non-inferior to placebo for the primary outcome of the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. If non-inferiority was confirmed by an upper limit of the 95% CI for a hazard ratio of less than 1¬∑30, closed testing for superiority was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02465515. Findings: Patients were screened between July 1, 2015, and Nov 24, 2016. 10‚Äą793 patients were screened and 9463 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to groups: 4731 patients were assigned to receive albiglutide and 4732 patients to receive placebo. On Nov 8, 2017, it was determined that 611 primary endpoints and a median follow-up of at least 1¬∑5 years had accrued, and participants returned for a final visit and discontinuation from study treatment; the last patient visit was on March 12, 2018. These 9463 patients, the intention-to-treat population, were evaluated for a median duration of 1¬∑6 years and were assessed for the primary outcome. The primary composite outcome occurred in 338 (7%) of 4731 patients at an incidence rate of 4¬∑6 events per 100 person-years in the albiglutide group and in 428 (9%) of 4732 patients at an incidence rate of 5¬∑9 events per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0¬∑78, 95% CI 0¬∑68‚Äď0¬∑90), which indicated that albiglutide was superior to placebo (p<0¬∑0001 for non-inferiority; p=0¬∑0006 for superiority). The incidence of acute pancreatitis (ten patients in the albiglutide group and seven patients in the placebo group), pancreatic cancer (six patients in the albiglutide group and five patients in the placebo group), medullary thyroid carcinoma (zero patients in both groups), and other serious adverse events did not differ between the two groups. There were three (<1%) deaths in the placebo group that were assessed by investigators, who were masked to study drug assignment, to be treatment-related and two (<1%) deaths in the albiglutide group. Interpretation: In patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, albiglutide was superior to placebo with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events. Evidence-based glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists should therefore be considered as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline

    Next generation of learning platforms

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    The Growing Spectrum of DADA2 Manifestations-Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges Revisited

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    Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase Type 2 (DADA2) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder with a variable phenotype including generalized or cerebral vasculitis and bone marrow failure. It is caused by variations in the adenosine deaminase 2 gene (ADA2), which leads to decreased adenosine deaminase 2 enzyme activity. Here we present three instructive scenarios that demonstrate DADA2 spectrum characteristics and provide a clear and thorough diagnostic and therapeutic workflow for effective patient care. Patient 1 illustrates cerebral vasculitis in DADA2. Genetic analysis reveals a compound heterozygosity including the novel ADA2 variant, p.V325Tfs*7. In patient 2, different vasculitis phenotypes of the DADA2 spectrum are presented, all resulting from the homozygous ADA2 mutation p.Y453C. In this family, the potential risk for siblings is particularly evident. Patient 3 represents pure red cell aplasia with bone marrow failure in DADA2. Here, ultimately, stem cell transplantation is considered the curative treatment option. The diversity of the DADA2 spectrum often delays diagnosis and treatment of this vulnerable patient cohort. We therefore recommend early ADA2 enzyme activity measurement as a screening tool for patients and siblings at risk, and we expect early steroid-based remission induction will help avoid fatal outcomes

    Lymphnode tuberculosis in a 4-year-old boy with relapsed ganglioneuroblastoma: a case report

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    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) disease is a generally well-known problem among immunocompromised adults and children. In pediatric oncology, only few cases of M. tuberculosis disease are reported so far. Case presentation: We report a case of concomitant lymphnode tuberculosis in a 4-year-old German boy with relapsed ganglioneuroblastoma. 18 months after the initial diagnosis, relapse with new paravertebral lesions and new lesions in the left lower lobe of the lung and in the perihilar lymphnodes suspicious of metastases of the ganglioneuroblastoma were detected. While relapse in the tumor was confirmed, unexpectedly, pathologic examination revealed morphological diagnosis of lymphnode tuberculosis. The boy was of German background without previous history of tuberculosis exposure. Both, antituberculostatic and relapse treatment were immediately initiated. Three months on, MRI revealed regressive findings in the lung and lymphnodes and partial response in the tumor. The patient underwent second MiBG therapy and haploidentical stem cell transplantation. Conclusion: The diagnosis of lymphnode tuberculosis in a 4-year-old German boy with relapsed ganglioneuroblastoma was only made by chance, but most likely saved his life. Pediatric oncologist should be aware of tuberculosis as the incidence might increase over time and the timely diagnosis of a potentially preventable M. tuberculosis disease is irreplaceable. Further studies are needed to explore the incidence of M. tuberculosis infections and the value of IGRA, testing for latent tuberculosis infection prior to chemotherapy in children with underlying malignancies

    Biallelic mutation of human SLC6A6 encoding the taurine transporter TAUT is linked to early retinal degeneration

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    We previously reported that inactivation of the transmembrane taurine transporter (TauT or solute carrier 6a6) causes early retinal degeneration in mice. Compatible with taurine's indispensability for cell volume homeostasis, protein stabilization, cytoprotection, antioxidation, and immuno- and neuromodulation, mice develop multisystemic dysfunctions (hearing loss; liver fibrosis; and behavioral, heart, and skeletal muscle abnormalities) later on. Here, by genetic, cell biologic, in vivo H-1-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies, we conducted in-depth characterization of a novel disorder: human TAUT deficiency. Loss of TAUT function due to a homozygous missense mutation caused panretinal degeneration in 2 brothers. TAUT(p.A78E) still localized in the plasma membrane but is predicted to impact structural stabilization. H-3-taurine uptake by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced by 95%, and taurine levels were severely reduced in plasma, skeletal muscle, and brain. Extraocular dysfunctions were not yet detected, but significantly increased urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine indicated generally enhanced (yet clinically unapparent) oxidative stress and RNA oxidation, warranting continuous broad surveillance.-Preising, M. N., Gorg, B., Friedburg, C., Qvartskhava, N., Budde, B. S., Bonus, M., Toliat, M. R., Pfleger, C., Altmuller, J., Herebian, D., Beyer, M., Zollner, H. J., Wittsack, H.-J., Schaper, J., Klee, D., Zechner, U., Nurnberg, P., Schipper, J., Schnitzler, A., Gohlke, H., Lorenz, B., Haussinger, D., Bolz, H. J. Biallelic mutation of human SLC6A6 encoding the taurine transporter TAUT is linked to early retinal degeneration