408 research outputs found

    The Acute Effects of Cupping Therapy on Hamstring Range of Motion Compared to Sham

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    Context: Flexibility is an important aspect of physical performance and when deficient can result in an increased opportunity for injury. Cupping therapy is an ancient technique that has recently seen a growth in popularity in Western Orthopedic medicine as a soft tissue mobilization technique. Most cupping therapy research explores the use of cupping therapy for treating headache, herpes zoster, asthma, cough, and other non-orthopedic pathologies. Cupping therapy has had positive results on an injured population for increasing flexibility. Objective: To identify if cupping therapy applied passively for 10 minutes results in an increase in flexibility, and to identify if there is a placebo effect with the sham cupping treatment. Design: Double-blinded randomized repeated measures trial. Setting: laboratory. Participants: 40 semi-active participants were recruited (age: 23.52 ± 3.50 years, height: 171.89 ± 9.23 cm, mass: 72.864 ± 14.90 kg) with hamstring range of motion less than 80 degrees. Exclusion criteria included previous cupping therapy experience, allergies to adhesive, any lower extremity injury in the past 6 months, previous cupping experience and cupping therapy contraindications: pregnancy, sunburn, rash, contusions. Methods: Participants reported to the Sports Injury Research Clinic on three occasions, on the first occasion participants completed informed consent and questionnaire, followed by the secondary investigator performing the pre-treatment measurement, then the primary investigator performed one of three randomly assigned treatment options, cupping, sham, and control. Treatment was for 10 minutes with the patient laying prone and relaxed. Then the participant underwent range of motion testing post treatment, and after 10 minutes of laying relaxed. Participants returned on two other occasions with at least one week in between to perform the other treatment conditions. Main Outcome Measurements: Hamstring range of motion to measure flexibility, measured three times, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 10 minutes post-treatment. An active straight leg raise was performed 4 times for each measurement with the average of the last 2 was taken as the measurement. A 3x3x2 ANOVA in SPSS was utilized for data analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between cupping and control conditions (p=0.004). Cupping had a significantly higher range of motion at pre-treatment (p=0.032), post-treatment (p=0.017), and 10-minutes (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in the interaction between Condition, Time, and Sex (p=0.263). There was no significant interaction between Condition and Sex (p=0.230), Time and Condition (p=0.443), and Time and Sex (p=0.064). Conclusion: Cupping therapy applied to a healthy individual for 10 minutes does not create an increase in hamstring flexibility. Word Count: 410 word

    Racial Expectancy Violations in Mixed-Race Minimal Groups

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    Previous research has found differential neural processing to racial ingroup and outgroup faces and greater neural processing for individuals who violate social expectations in the early attentional components of the ERP. Other lines of research using behavioral paradigms and fMRI methodology have demonstrated the ability of minimal group assignment to override race effects. This research sought to combine these lines of research to investigate the effects of an arbitrary group membership on attention in a racial expectancy violation paradigm, as measured by P2 amplitude. Hypotheses were generally unsupported but two effects were found that merit discussion. That is, we replicated previous person perception research by showing that participants show larger P2 amplitudes to racial outgroup members and extended the minimal groups literature by showing that racially stereotypical minimal outgroup targets elicit more P2 processing than other combinations. Limitations, implications and future directions are discussed

    Speak, and speak immediately : the risen subpoena, the executive branch, and the reporter\u27s privilege

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    In 1972, Branzburg v. Hayes required the Supreme Court to consider whether the First Amendment to the United States Constitution conferred on journalists a right to quash grand jury subpoenas issued by the government. The Court held in a five-to-four opinion that it did not. Yet, in 2011, a federal district judge found that James Risen, a New York Times reporter, had a First Amendment reporter’s privilege that protected him from having to reveal his source for a book chapter about a secretive CIA operation. This judge is not alone in finding such a privilege in spite of Branzburg; indeed, many judges have come to the same conclusion. This thesis, through an analysis of post-Branzburg cases at the federal courts of appeals level, attempts to map the current landscape. It finds that Branzburg jurisprudence is in tatters, with some courts of appeals finding a reporter’s privilege and others not. It further finds that the courts that do find a privilege fail to weigh the First Amendment interests in each case, opting instead for sweeping but vacuous pronouncements of the benefits of the First Amendment. Taking this landscape under consideration, this thesis suggests that Branzburg is the problem – not the solution and offers a way for courts to escape from under Branzburg’s thumb by recognizing that subsequent case law has implicitly dismissed the presumption on which Branzburg is based. It further extrapolates from this subsequent case law the principle that the First Amendment is implicated when the government or a private party acts adversely to a speaker because of his speech. Having recognized that the First Amendment is implicated by subpoenas against journalists, it then argues that the only way to account for all of the interests involved is to identify and appraise the value of the First Amendment interests in light of First Amendment theory and weigh those interests against the countervailing interests. Finally, it suggests how this approach informs the Risen case

    Drug and Alcohol-Related Workload of Anchorage Patrol Officers: Results From Two Patrol Officer Surveys

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    It is widely agreed among criminal justice professionals that alcohol and illegal drugs play a role in patterns of crime, but not much is known about how these substances influence the operation of criminal justice agencies, particularly in the area of policing. This report summarizes the findings of a study of the extent to which drug and alcohol-related incidents formed the workload of Anchorage Police Department patrol officers. The study consisted of two surveys, the first of which asked APD patrol officers to provide their best estimate of the amount of time they spent dealing with alcohol and drug-related activities, the second of which required patrol officers to complete incident logs describing drug and alcohol-related incidents encountered on patrol. The study found that officers tended to overestimate the amount of time they spent on drug or alcohol-related activities, but that the drug and alcohol-related activities nonetheless comprise a significant portion of APD patrol officers' workload.Acknowledgements / Executive Summary / List of Tables / List of Figures / Introduction / Methodology / Part I: Survey 1: Global Perceptions of Drug- and Alcohol-related Workload / Part II: Survey 2: Incident-based Perceptions of Drug- and Alcohol-related Workload / Part III: Comparing Officers’ Global Estimates to Incident Log Data / Part IV: Summary and Conclusions / Methodological Appendix / References / Note

    Treatment of failed articular cartilage reconstructive procedures of the knee: A systematic review

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    Background: Symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee are common and are being treated surgically with increasing frequency. While many studies have reported outcomes following a variety of cartilage restoration procedures, few have investigated outcomes of revision surgery after a failed attempt at cartilage repair or reconstruction. Purpose: To investigate outcomes of revision cartilage restoration procedures for symptomatic articular cartilage lesions of the knee following a previously failed cartilage reconstructive procedure. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A literature search was performed by use of the PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE/Ovid databases for relevant articles published between 1975 and 2017 that evaluated patients undergoing revision cartilage restoration procedure(s) and reported outcomes using validated outcome measures. For studies meeting inclusion criteria, relevant information was extracted. Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Lesions most commonly occurred in the medial femoral condyle (MFC) (52.8%), with marrow stimulation techniques (MST) the index procedure most frequently performed (70.7%). Three studies demonstrated inferior outcomes of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) following a previous failed cartilage procedure compared with primary ACI. One study comparing osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplant following failed microfracture (MFX) with primary OCA transplant demonstrated similar clinical outcomes and graft survival at midterm follow-up. No studies reported outcomes following osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) or newer techniques. Conclusion: This systematic review of the literature reporting outcomes following revision articular cartilage restoration procedures (most commonly involving the MFC) demonstrated a high proportion of patients who underwent prior MST. Evidence is sufficient to suggest that caution should be taken in performing ACI in the setting of prior MST, likely secondary to subchondral bone compromise. OCA appears to be a good revision treatment option even if the subchondral bone has been violated from prior surgery or fracture. </jats:sec

    In Defense: New York Times v. Sullivan

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    The article discusses the U.S. Supreme Court case New York Times v. Sullivan which deals with the actual-malice requirement, the common law of libel, and public-official and public-figure libel plaintiffs

    Does \u3cem\u3eHouchins v. KQED, Inc.\u3c/em\u3e Matter?

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    A Duty to Impeach: Libel and Modern Liberalism after Dobbs

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    The conservative legal establishment is waging war on modern liberalism with Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization marking its most recent victory. Against this backdrop, this Article contends that attacks from the right on New York Times Co. v. Sullivan—the Court’s defining First Amendment decision that places political speech at the center of free speech doctrine—are motivated not by bona fide doctrinal disagreements but rather the cynical belief that the specter of defamation liability unrestrained by Sullivan will silence political opponents and, in turn, hasten the end of modern liberalism. So while the battle over Sullivan may not have the same partisan salience as attacks on Roe v. Wade, the political implications of overruling Sullivan are nevertheless vast

    F-theory GUTs with U(1) Symmetries: Generalities and Survey

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    We study the structure of SU(5) F-theory GUT models that engineer additional U(1) symmetries. These are highly constrained by a set of relations observed by Dudas and Palti (DP) that originate from the physics of 4D anomaly cancellation. Using the DP relations, we find a general tension between unification and the suppression of dimension 5 proton decay when one or more U(1)'s are PQ symmetries and hypercharge flux is used to break the SU(5) GUT group. We then specialize to spectral cover models, whose global completions in F- theory we know how to construct. In that setting, we provide a technical derivation of the DP relations, construct spectral covers that yield all possible solutions to them, and provide a complete survey of spectral cover models for SU(5) GUTs that exhibit two U(1) symmetries.Comment: 27 pages plus 5 appendices (70 pages total) ; v2 references adde
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