107 research outputs found

    Adult primary paratesticular mesenchymal tumors with emphasis on a case presentation and discussion of spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma

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    Background: The aim of this report is related to adult primary paratesticular mesenchymal tumors with emphasis on a case presentation and discussion of the spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma. Primary paratesticular tumors are rare, only accounting for 7% to 10% of all intrascrotal tumors. In adults, more than 75% of these lesions arise from the spermatic cord, 20% being leiomyosarcoma. Tumor grade, stage, histologic type, and lymph node involvement are independently predictive of prognosis. Findings: The case report concerns a 81-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of painless lump in the right hemiscrotum. Scrotal examination demonstrated a 5.1-cm, firm-to-hard mass attached to the spermatic cord. Scrotal ultrasound scan revealed a heterogeneous mass separate from the testis. He was treated with an radical orchi-funicolectomy. Histologically the lesion is composed of spindled cells with often elongated, blunt-ended nuclei and variably eosinophilic cytoplasm. Areas with pleomorphic morphology are present. The level of mitotic activity is equal to 3/10 HPF in the areas with spindle cell morphology and to 12/10 HPF in the areas with pleomorphic morphology. The final diagnosis was that a leiomyosarcoma of the spermatic cord, with grade 1 and grade 2 areas, stage pT2b cN0 and cM0. The patient has been followed up for 3 months with CT scans and shows no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: Spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma, although rare, should be one of the first differential diagnoses for a firm-to-hard lump in the cord. Apart from radical orchi-funicolectomy, there has been added benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy to prevent any loco-regional lymph node recurrenc

    Contemporary grading of prostate cancer: 2017 update for pathologists and clinicians

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    The Gleason grading system for prostate cancer (PCa) was developed in the 1960s by DF Gleason. Due to changes in PCa detection and treatment, the application of the Gleason grading system has changed considerably in pathology routine practice. Two consensus conferences were held in 2005 and in 2014 to update PCa Gleason grading. This review provides a summary of the changes in the grading of PCa from the original Gleason grading system to the prognostic grade grouping, as well as a discussion of the clinical significance of the percentage of Gleason patterns 4 and 5

    Circulating Tumor DNA Testing for Homology Recombination Repair Genes in Prostate Cancer: From the Lab to the Clinic

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    Approximately 23% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) harbor deleterious aberrations in DNA repair genes. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) therapy has shown improvements in overall survival in patients with mCRPC who harbor somatic and/or germline alterations of homology recombination repair (HRR) genes. Peripheral blood samples are typically used for the germline mutation analysis test using the DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Somatic alterations can be assessed by extracting DNA from a tumor tissue sample or using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from a plasma sample. Each of these genetic tests has its own benefits and limitations. The main advantages compared to the tissue test are that liquid biopsy is a non-invasive and easily repeatable test with the value of better representing tumor heterogeneity than primary biopsy and of capturing changes and/or resistance mutations in the genetic tumor profile during disease progression. Furthermore, ctDNA can inform about mutation status and guide treatment options in patients with mCRPC. Clinical validation and test implementation into routine clinical practice are currently very limited. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of the ctDNA test in prostate cancer compared to blood and tissue testing. We also illustrate the ctDNA testing workflow, the available techniques for ctDNA extraction, sequencing, and analysis, describing advantages and limits of each techniques

    Combination therapy with aliskiren versus ramipril or losartan added to conventional therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension and microalbuminuria.

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    Hypothesis/Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of aliskiren versus ramipril or losartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, microalbuminuria and uncontrolled hypertension, despite the use of optimal conventional antihypertensive therapy. Materials and methods: In this open-label active comparator study, 126 patients were randomly assigned to receive 24 weeks of additional therapy with aliskiren (Group A) or either losartan or ramipril (Group B), according to whether a patient was already treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker, respectively. Results: After 24 weeks, both treatment groups experienced a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (鈭11.37% and 鈭8.47%, respectively; both p <0.001 vs . baseline) and diastolic blood pressure levels (鈭10.67% and 鈭9.28%, respectively; both p <0.001 vs . baseline), with a greater reduction of mean systolic values in Group A compared with Group B ( p <0.001). Furthermore, after six months microalbuminuria was significantly decreased in both treatment groups (鈭67.62% and 鈭49.1%, respectively; both p <0.001), with a reduction rate in Group A significantly higher than in Group B ( p <0.001). Conclusions: The addition of aliskiren to optimal conventional therapy provided a higher reduction of blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion when compared with the addition of losartan or ramipril

    El Pueblo Quilmes revisitado: Notas sobre la colonialidad en esta hora de nuestra Am茅rica

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    Este art铆culo forma parte del Dossier "Otro bicentenario" de la Revista Ciencias Sociales. All铆 se realiza una reflexi贸n sobre las rupturas y continuidades que implicaron los procesos de independencia de las Rep煤blicas latinoamericanas. Principalmente se interroga por la permanencia de la colonialidad, en tanto forma de dominaci贸n, con respecto a un caso particular, como es el del Pueblo Quilmes.Fil: Bidaseca, Karina Andrea. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Ruggero, Santiago. Universidad de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Scarpelli, Agust铆n. Universidad de Buenos Aires; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Puentes, Juan Pablo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n; ArgentinaFil: Vacca, Laura Celina. Universidad de Buenos Aires; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas; Argentin

    Characterization of a new GmFAD3A allele in Brazilian CS303TNKCA soybean cultivar

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    Soybean is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Soybean oil has 13% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 20% oleic acid, 55% linoleic acid and 8% linolenic acid. Breeding programs are developing varieties with high oleic and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) to improve the oil oxidative stability and make the varieties more attractive for the soy industry. The main goal of this study was to characterize the low linoleic acid trait in CS303TNKCA cultivar. We sequenced CS303TNKCA GmFAD3A, GmFAD3B and GmFAD3C genes and identified an adenine point deletion in the GmFAD3A exon 5 (delA). This alteration creates a premature stop codon, leading to a truncated protein with just 207 residues that result in a non-functional enzyme. Analysis of enzymatic activity by heterologous expression in yeast support delA as the cause of low linolenic acid content in CS303TNKCA. Thus, we developed a TaqMan genotyping assay to associate delA with low linolenic acid content in segregating populations. Lines homozygous for delA had a linolenic acid content of 3.3 to 4.4%, and the variation at this locus accounted for 50.83 to 73.70% of the phenotypic variation. This molecular marker is a new tool to introgress the low linolenic acid trait into elite soybean cultivars and can be used to combine with high oleic trait markers to produce soybean with enhanced economic value. The advantage of using CS303TNKCA compared to other lines available in the literature is that this cultivar has good agronomic characteristics and is adapted to Brazilian conditions

    New Prostate Cancer Targets for Diagnosis, Imaging, and Therapy: Focus on Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen

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    The rising incidence rate of the cancer in the prostate gland has increased the demand for improved diagnostic, imaging, and therapeutic approaches. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), with folate hydrolase and carboxypeptidase and, internalization activities, is highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and is strongly upregulated in prostatic adenocarcinoma, with elevated expression correlating with, metastasis, progression, and androgen independence. Recently, PSMA has been an active target of investigation by several approaches, including the successful utilization of small molecule inhibitors, RNA aptamer conjugates, PSMA-based immunotherapy, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy. Future investigations of PSMA in prostate cancer (PCa) should focus in particular on its intracellular activities and functions. The objective of this contribution is to review the current role of PSMA as a marker for PCa diagnosis, imaging, and therapy

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers 鈭99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of 鈭1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    ProtoDUNE and a Dual-phase LArTPC

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    International audienceThe four 10 kt Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) of the future DUNE experiment will enable precise measurements of the oscillation parameters and the discovery of CP violation for leptons, thanks to their excellent 3D imaging capabilities and calorimetric capabilities. One or more modules of the DUNE detector may exploit a Dual Phase (DP) LArTPC that, relying on the extraction of the charge produced in the liquid volume and its subsequent multiplication in argon gas, may offer a robust and competitive signal-to-noise ratio and a fully active volume. In 2018 and 2019, the ProtoDUNE experiment at CERN will validate the designs of the DUNE far detector, showing the feasibility of large scale Dual-Phase LArTPC and providing precious insight on the DUNE physics potential