916 research outputs found

    Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance environment: an update on regulation, exposure assessment techniques, health risk evaluation, and surveillance

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    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most-used diagnostic imaging methods worldwide. There are ∼50,000 MRI scanners worldwide each of which involves a minimum of five workers from different disciplines who spend their working days around MRI scanners. This review analyzes the state of the art of literature about the several aspects of the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in MRI: regulations, literature studies on biological effects, and health surveillance are addressed here in detail, along with a summary of the main approaches for exposure assessment. The original research papers published from 2013 to 2021 in international peer-reviewed journals, in the English language, are analyzed, together with documents published by legislative bodies. The key points for each topic are identified and described together with useful tips for precise safeguarding of MRI operators, in terms of exposure assessment, studies on biological effects, and health surveillance. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum

    The large trans-Neptunian object 2002 TC302 from combined stellar occultation, photometry, and astrometry data

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    Context. Deriving physical properties of trans-Neptunian objects is important for the understanding of our Solar System. This requires observational efforts and the development of techniques suitable for these studies. Aims. Our aim is to characterize the large trans-Neptunian object (TNO) 2002 TC302. Methods. Stellar occultations offer unique opportunities to determine key physical properties of TNOs. On 28 January 2018, 2002 TC302 occulted a mv ~ 15.3 star with designation 593-005847 in the UCAC4 stellar catalog, corresponding to Gaia source 130957813463146112. Twelve positive occultation chords were obtained from Italy, France, Slovenia, and Switzerland. Also, four negative detections were obtained near the north and south limbs. This represents the best observed stellar occultation by a TNO other than Pluto in terms of the number of chords published thus far. From the 12 chords, an accurate elliptical fit to the instantaneous projection of the body can be obtained that is compatible with the near misses. Results. The resulting ellipse has major and minor axes of 543 ± 18 km and 460 ± 11 km, respectively, with a position angle of 3 ± 1 degrees for the minor axis. This information, combined with rotational light curves obtained with the 1.5 m telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory and the 1.23 m telescope at Calar Alto observatory, allows us to derive possible three-dimensional shapes and density estimations for the body based on hydrostatic equilibrium assumptions. The effective diameter in equivalent area is around 84 km smaller than the radiometrically derived diameter using thermal data from Herschel and Spitzer Space Telescopes. This might indicate the existence of an unresolved satellite of up to ~300 km in diameter, which is required to account for all the thermal flux, although the occultation and thermal diameters are compatible within their error bars given the considerable uncertainty of the thermal results. The existence of a potential satellite also appears to be consistent with other ground-based data presented here. From the effective occultation diameter combined with absolute magnitude measurements we derive a geometric albedo of 0.147 ± 0.005, which would be somewhat smaller if 2002 TC302 has a satellite. The best occultation light curves do not show any signs of ring features or any signatures of a global atmosphere.Funding from Spanish projects AYA2014-56637-C2-1-P, AYA2017-89637-R, from FEDER, and Proyecto de Excelencia de la Junta de Andalucía 2012-FQM1776 is acknowledged. We would like to acknowledge financial support by the Spanish grant AYA-RTI2018-098657-JI00 “LEO-SBNAF” (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE) and the financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV- 2017-0709). Part of the research received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, under grant agreement no. 687378 and from the ERC programme under Grant Agreement no. 669416 Lucky Star. The following authors acknowledge the respective CNPq grants: FB-R 309578/2017-5; RV-M 304544/2017-5, 401903/2016-8; J.I.B.C. 308150/2016-3; MA 427700/2018-3, 310683/2017-3, 473002/2013-2. This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiaçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001 and the National Institute of Science and Technology of the e-Universe project (INCT do e-Universo, CNPq grant 465376/2014-2). GBR acknowledges CAPES-FAPERJ/PAPDRJ grant E26/203.173/2016, MA FAPERJ grant E-26/111.488/2013 and ARGJr FAPESP grant 2018/11239-8. E.F.-V. acknowledges support from the 2017 Preeminent Postdoctoral Program (P3) at UCF. C.K., R.S., A.F-T., and G.M. have been supported by the K-125015 and GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00003 grants of the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH), Hungary. G.M. was also supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) grant PD-128 360. R.K. and T.P. were supported by the VEGA 2/0031/18 grant

    MUSiC: a model-unspecific search for new physics in proton–proton collisions at √s=13TeV