43 research outputs found

    Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

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    BACKGROUND: A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. METHODS: From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

    An Exceptional Response to Dostarlimab in Mismatch Repair Deficient, Microsatellite Instability-High and Platinum Refractory Endometrial Cancer

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    Until recently, effective therapies for advanced endometrial cancer progressing to a platinum-based combination were lacking. In this setting, immunotherapy with anti PD-1/PDL-1 monoclonal antibodies is rising as a new paradigm in particular for patients with microsatellites instability/mismatch repair deficiency. In this case report, we describe an exceptional and rapid response to dostarlimab in a platinum refractory endometrial cancer patient with high disease burden harboring a mismatch repair deficiency

    Clinical characteristics and molecular aspects of low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer: a multicenter, observational, retrospective analysis of MITO Group (MITO 22)

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    BACKGROUND: Low-grade serous ovarian and peritoneal cancer (LGSC) is a rare disease and few data on the clinical and genomic landscape have been published.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with LGSC between 1996 and 2019 was conducted in MITO centers. Objective Response Rate (ORR) to treatments, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. Additionally, the tumor molecular profile of 56 patients was evaluated using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) FoundationOne CDX (Foundation Medicine (R)).RESULTS: A total of 128 patients with complete clinical data and pathologically confirmed diagnosis of LGSC were identified. ORR to first and subsequent therapies were 23.7% and 33.7%, respectively. PFS was 43.9 months (95% CI:32.4-53.1) and OS was 105.4 months (95% CI: 82.7-not reached). The most common gene alterations were: KRAS (n = 12, 21%), CDKN2A/B (n = 11, 20%), NRAS (n = 8, 14%), FANCA (n = 8, 14%), NF1 (n = 7, 13%) and BRAF (n = 6, 11%). Unexpectedly, pathogenetic BRCA1 (n = 2, 4%), BRCA2 (n = 1, 2%) and PALB2 (n = 1, 2%) mutations were found.CONCLUSIONS: MITO 22 suggests that LGSC is an heterogenous disease for both its clinical behavior in response to standard therapies and its molecular alterations. Future prospective studies should test treatments according to biological and molecular tumor's characteristics

    Selecting for BRCA1 testing using a combination of homogeneous selection criteria and immunohistochemical characteristics of breast cancers

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>BRCA1 gene-related tumours are more frequently estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative with a lower prevalence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or amplification. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of homogeneously selected criteria and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of Familial Breast Cancers (FBCs) in detecting BRCA1 mutation carriers.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Primary breast tumours from 93 FBC patients defined by specific eligibility criteria, based on personal and familial tumour history, were evaluated by Allred's method. The BRCA1 molecular analysis, including Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), was considered as the gold standard assay.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A total of 10 BRCA1 pathogenetic mutations was found. With the exclusion of the tumours characterized by double positive receptorial status and/or strong HER2 positivity (3+), we identified 22 patients, 10 of whom resulted as BRCA1 mutation carriers. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 83.3%, 45.4% and 100% respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our findings suggest that the IHC analysis by Allred's method improves our ability to select patients for BRCA1 testing.</p

    A different immunologic profile characterizes patients with HER-2-overexpressing and HER-2-negative locally advanced breast cancer: implications for immune-based therapies

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    INTRODUCTION: The clinical efficacy of trastuzumab and taxanes is at least partly related to their ability to mediate or promote antitumor immune responses. On these grounds, a careful analysis of basal immune profile may be capital to dissect the heterogeneity of clinical responses to these drugs in patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 61 locally advanced breast cancers (36 HER2- and 25 HER2+) at diagnosis and from 23 healthy women. Immunophenotypic profiling of circulating and intratumor immune cells, including regulatory T (Treg) cells, was assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of 10 different cytokines were assessed by multiplex immunoassays. CD8+ T cell responses to multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAA) were evaluated by IFN-ő≥-enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT). The Student's t test for two tailed distributions and the Wilcoxon two-sample test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: The proportion of circulating immune effectors was similar in HER2+ patients and healthy donors, whereas higher percentages of natural killer and Treg cells and a lower CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio (with a prevalence of na√Įve and central memory CD8+ T cells) were observed in HER2- cases. Higher numbers of circulating CD8+ T cells specific for several HLA-A*0201-restricted TAA-derived peptides were observed in HER2+ cases, together with a higher prevalence of intratumor CD8+ T cells. Serum cytokine profile of HER2+ patients was similar to that of controls, whereas HER2- cases showed significantly lower cytokine amounts compared to healthy women (IL-2, IL-8, IL-6) and HER2+ cases (IL-2, IL-1ő≤, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to HER2- cases, patients with HER2-overexpressing locally advanced breast cancer show a more limited tumor-related immune suppression. This may account for the clinical benefit achieved in this subset of patients with the use of drugs acting through, but also promoting, immune-mediated effects

    Oral ondansetron versus domperidone for acute gastroenteritis in pediatric emergency departments: Multicenter double blind randomized controlled trial

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    The use of antiemetics for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children is still a matter of debate. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate whether a single oral dose of ondansetron vs domperidone or placebo improves outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. After failure of initial oral rehydration administration, children aged 1-6 years admitted for gastroenteritis to the pediatric emergency departments of 15 hospitals in Italy were randomized to receive one oral dose of ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg) or domperidone (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo. The primary outcome was the percentage of children receiving nasogastric or intravenous rehydration. A p value of 0.014 was used to indicate statistical significance (and 98.6% CI were calculated) as a result of having carried out two interim analyses. 1,313 children were eligible for the first attempt with oral rehydration solution, which was successful for 832 (63.4%); 356 underwent randomization (the parents of 125 children did not give consent): 118 to placebo, 119 to domperidone, and 119 to ondansetron. Fourteen (11.8%) needed intravenous rehydration in the ondansetron group vs 30 (25.2%) and 34 (28.8%) in the domperidone and placebo groups, respectively. Ondansetron reduced the risk of intravenous rehydration by over 50%, both vs placebo (RR 0.41, 98.6% CI 0.20-0.83) and domperidone (RR 0.47, 98.6% CI 0.23-0.97). No differences for adverse events were seen among groups. In a context of emergency care, 6 out of 10 children aged 1-6 years with vomiting due to gastroenteritis and without severe dehydration can be managed effectively with administration of oral rehydration solution alone. In children who fail oral rehydration, a single oral dose of ondansetron reduces the need for intravenous rehydration and the percentage of children who continue to vomit, thereby facilitating the success of oral rehydration. Domperidone was not effective for the symptomatic treatment of vomiting during acute gastroenteritis

    The pharmacoeconomic impact of amlodipine use on coronary artery disease

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    The most frequent cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries is coronary artery disease (CAD), which in Europe alone is responsible for around two million deaths per year. In 2001 it accounted for about 260,000 hospital discharges in Italy. The costs of CAD treatment in Italy-which were borne by the Italian state, the third-party payer-amounted to \u20ac800 million. We propose to assess the pharmacoeconomic implications of using amlodipine besylate treatment in Italy for patients with coronary artery disease. The study is based on a post-hoc cost-effectiveness analysis that compared standard care supplemented by amlodipine besylate with ordinary standard care over a 36-month time horizon. The clinical outcome data were based on the prospective randomized evaluation of vascular effect of norvasc trial (PREVENT). Direct medical costs referred to the purchase costs of amlodipine besylate and the cost of National Health Service (NHS) hospitalization. The costs were discounted back at an annual rate of 5%. Patients administered amlodipine besylate exhibited a significant risk reduction with respect to any major vascular event or procedure when compared to the placebo group. The reduction mainly referred to unstable angina events and revascularization procedures. We estimated that the total cost of adding amlodipine besylate to standard care amounted to \u20ac139,050 per 1000 patients treated for 36 months. This represents a cost of \u20ac1780 per patient remaining free of any vascular event. Results were sensitive to both clinical and economic variables. The incremental costs of the alternative therapy ranged from \u20ac296 to 5066 per patient free of any event in, respectively, the best and worst scenario. Amlodipine besylate therapy can be a cost-effective strategy for CAD treatment in Italy. Our economic evaluation demonstrated, first, that by reducing vascular events and the need for revascularization procedures savings were achieved in hospital expenditure, and, second, that such savings could significantly offset drug costs

    New Challenges in Tumor Mutation Heterogeneity in Advanced Ovarian Cancer by a Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) Approach

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    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has advanced knowledge of the genomic landscape of ovarian cancer, leading to an innovative molecular classification of the disease. However, patient survival and response to platinum-based treatments are still not predictable based on the tumor genetic profile. This retrospective study characterized the repertoire of somatic mutations in advanced ovarian cancer to identify tumor genetic markers predictive of platinum chemo-resistance and prognosis. Using targeted NGS, 79 primary advanced (III-IV stage, tumor grade G2-3) ovarian cancer tumors, including 64 high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs), were screened with a 26 cancer-genes panel. Patients, enrolled between 1995 and 2011, underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS) with optimal residual disease (RD < 1 cm) and platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment. We found a heterogeneous mutational landscape in some uncommon ovarian histotypes and in HGSOC tumor samples with relevance in predicting platinum sensitivity. In particular, we identified a poor prognostic signature in patients with HGSOC harboring concurrent mutations in two driver actionable genes of the panel. The tumor heterogeneity described, sheds light on the translational potential of targeted NGS approach for the identification of subgroups of patients with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities, that are modulated by the specific mutational profile expressed by the ovarian tumor

    Pharmacoeconomic consequences of amlodipine besylate therapy in patients undergoing PTCA

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    In Italy, revascularization interventions increased from 44,600 in 1996 to more than 100,000 in 2001. In particular, the occurrence of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) increased from 239 cases per million population in 1994 to about 1300 cases per million population in 2001. This trend has caused a concomitant increase in revascularization costs, which have doubled in few years, rising from \u20ac421 millions in 1996 to \u20ac850 millions in 2001. In 2001, PTCA amounted to 55% of total cost of revascularizations. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacoeconomic consequences of amlodipine besylate therapy administered in patients at high risk of restenosis after PTCA. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing therapy with amlodipine besylate added to standard care versus standard care alone. Information on clinical outcomes was drawn from the Coronary Angioplasty Amlodipine Restenosis Study (CAPARES). Medical costs were estimated with reference to drug therapy and hospitalizations for coronary events and revascularization procedures. The study was conducted from the perspective of the Italian third party payer (National Health Service). The analysis was applied to a time horizon of 4 months. Amlodipine besylate resulted less expensive and more effective than standard care. It reduced mortality, morbidity for coronary reasons and the need of revascularization procedures. The cost per 1000 patients was estimated at \u20ac1,166,000 in the placebo and \u20ac950,000 in the amlodipine besylate group, resulting into a cost saving of \u20ac216,000, that is 18.5% of total cost of standard care. Results are sensitive to the cost of amlodipine besylate and the cost of hospitalizations, but therapy with amlodipine besylate resulted dominant even in the most unfavorable hypothesis
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