63 research outputs found

    Effect of calcination temperature on structure of mesoporous borosilicate bioglass

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    Recently, most researchers have been focusing on the development of the mesoporous bioactive glasses for medical application. These materials are capable for bone tissue (soft and hard) regeneration and the delivery of bio-responsive active therapeutic molecules such as drug, proteins, nucleic acids, and peptides. However, the structure properties of the mesoporous bioactive glass are easily been controlled with a small change of calcination temperature during the sample preparation. In this perception, a series of mesoporous borosilicate bioactive glasses (MBBGs) with the composition of 10B2O -70SiO2 -15CaO- 5P2O5 were prepared using the combination of sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) and characterised. The calcination temperature of the bioactive glass preparation was controlled with varied temperature of 400 C, 500 C, 600 C and 700 C. The amorphous nature of the prepared samples were confirmed using XRD pattern. The EDX and FTIR spectra shows a small amount of carbon trapping inside the sample is increases with the increased of calcination temperature. All MBBGs samples show a ratio of Si-O-NBO and Si-O-Si (sym) bigger than 1. It is established that the structure of the mesoporous borosilicate bioactive glass can be tailored by controlling the calcination temperature

    the properties of zinc sodium phosphate glass system with the various concentration of chromium oxide doped

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    In this research, we investigate the properties of zinc sodium phosphate glass system with the various concentration of chromium oxide doped. The glass system was synthesized using the melt quenching technique - the concentration of chromium oxide varying from 0.5% to 2.5%. The chromium oxide presence makes the range value was smaller for the density and the molar volume thus making its the structure of this glass system more stable. We perform the Vicker Hardness test using 980 mNewton pressure. The test results show the concentration of chromium oxide effect to the hardness scale of glass system. We also perform FTIR test for knowing the relationship between the wavenumber and percentage of transmittance

    Degradation and stability of polymer: A mini review

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    Observations of alterations in the structural and chemical properties have been commonly performed to understand the process by which polymers degrade. The validity of each observational procedure depends primarily on the test material and type of degradation. An appropriate method for the characterization of polymers can often be utilized to examine the properties of degradation. The service life of a polymer depends strongly on the conditions to which the material is subjected. On the other hand, the stability of the material, including nanocomposite polymer blends, often dictates its usefulness. Thus, this review was aimed to evaluate the degradation of nanocomposite polymer blends, with specific focus on the role of the fillers and the composition of the blends. The factors that could significantly affect the degradation of the same were the presence of a filler, as well as the morphology and composition of the blends

    A short review on polymeric materials concerning degradable polymers

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    The demand for cutting-edge functional materials has been increasing since the decade. Polymeric materials usage in the past decade contributes to its commercial accomplishment, thus encouraging more groundbreaking research-based activities. Although this news is promising for polymer-related industries, the fast consumption rate of these materials throughout the world will seriously harm the environment through the accumulation of waste materials sourced primarily from by-products, faulty products or municipal from various agricultural farms and industries with disposal difficulties. Wide usage of polymeric materials is due to their ease of processing, light weight and relatively low manufacturing cost. Various advancements were made over the years in developing polymeric materials of high performance. Structure and ionic bonds of polymeric and biomaterials are the reason behind their physical and chemical properties. However, their usage is limited due to expensive manufacturing cost and difficulty in shaping and processing them

    A Mini Review on Working Mechanism, Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and Preventative Maintenance of Low Temperature Long Term (LTLT) Milk Pasteurizer

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    A small-scaled batch Low Temperature- Long Term (LTLT) pasteurizer is one of many types of pasteurizers that is being utilized in food-based industries particularly in dairies. It has a capacity of heating up the milk and holding the temperature for a certain amount of time to kill pathogenic microorganisms. The instantaneous heat up is caused by heat exchangers either in the form of plates or metal coils depending on the machine. The coil is circulated within the jacket of the tank where it heats up and holds the temperature. Hot water circulation will be in continuous movement around the milk to heat it up and maintain the desired temperature. After certain period, the efficiency of LTLT pasteurizer starts declining due to cumulated issues. Decline in efficiency will affect the output of the machine too. Instantaneous heat exchanges, leaking, unstable pressure and electrical problem degrades the machine over period if it is not complying with Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and a proper Preventative Maintenance (PM) plan. The SOP and PM will increase the machine’s lifespan and maintain a good efficiency rate for longer period. This mini review paper will compile the possible PM plan and establish a sustainable SOP for the LTLT Pasteurizer

    Investigation of carbon nanotube ink with PDMS printing plate on fine solid lines printed by micro-flexographic printing method

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    Micro-flexographic printing which is combination of flexography and micro-contact printing is a unique printing technique that create graphic, electronic and biomedical printed image on variable substrates. Therefore, an investigation for its potential usage in global area of printing hence a research for suitable ink and printing plate related to this process is vital. This paper will focus on investigating the printability of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) ink with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) printing plate. There are two types of CNTs ink which are solvent base and water base. A printing trial has been carried out in comparison with CNTs inks and PDMS printing plate with fine solid lines image on it to check the suitability of the printing plate development for micro-flexographic printing technique. The result shows that CNT water base ink is suitable with PDMS printing plate in printing fine solid lines image

    Investigation of carbon nanotube ink with PDMS printing plate on fine solid lines printed by micro-flexographic printing method

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    Micro-flexographic printing which is combination of flexography and micro-contact printing is a unique printing technique that create graphic, electronic and biomedical printed image on variable substrates. Therefore, an investigation for its potential usage in global area of printing hence a research for suitable ink and printing plate related to this process is vital. This paper will focus on investigating the printability of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) ink with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) printing plate. There are two types of CNTs ink which are solvent base and water base. A printing trial has been carried out in comparison with CNTs inks and PDMS printing plate with fine solid lines image on it to check the suitability of the printing plate development for micro-flexographic printing technique. The result shows that CNT water base ink is suitable with PDMS printing plate in printing fine solid lines image

    Colour reduction and anti-microbial evaluation of pre-treated cashew leaves extract

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    Cashew leaves are used traditionally for various health promoting effects includingj wound healing and diarrhea and could be orally consumed for its effectiveness. Previous research shows that cashew leaves and its bark extracts is rich in tannin and is a potential antimicrobial agent. Extended from these properties, we selected cashew leaves extract as a candidate for potential natural preservative. The extraction method especially using ethanol or other solvent extraction will result in intense colour that will limit its application. The intense green colour of the leaves is due to chlorophyll and become a problem to end product. Various treatments could be used to reduce chlorophyll in the leaves. This study focused on the pretreatment of the cashew leaves in order to minimize the green colour intensity of the extract. Our study shows that pretreatment 3 reduced the green colour intensity significantly. Pretreatment 3: cashew leaves heated in boiling water for 1 minute, immediately cooled in ice-cold water then blotted to dry. The dried leaves then cut into small pieces and floated on the surface of 0.05 M EDTA-2Na, pH 7.0 for 24 hours exposure to the light (5000 lux). The antimicrobial activity of all the extracts was almost similar and was shown to be as effective as methylpareban at concentration as low as 2.5g (v/v). The extract could control the growth of all five main microorganisms as recommended by FDA for cosmetic and bodycare products

    A significant review on beam optimization for boron neutron capture therapy

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    The thermal column at the TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) research reactor can produce thermal neutron. However, the optimization on the thermal neutron flux produced should be performed to gain a sufficient thermal neutron for boron neutron capture therapy purpose. Thus, the objective of this review is to optimize the thermal neutron flux by designing the collimator with different materials at the thermal column. In order to fulfil the requirement, set by the IAEA standard, the study of BNCT around the world was being reviewed to study the suitable measurement, material, design, and modification for BNCT at the thermal column of TRIGA MARK-II, Malaysia. Initially, the BNCT mechanisms and history was review. Then, this paper review on the design and modifications for BNCT purpose around the world. Based on this review, suitable material and design can be used for the BNCT in Malaysia. Moreover, this paper also reviews the current status of BNCT at the RTP with the measurement of the thermal neutron flux was conducted along the thermal column at 250 kW. The thermal column of RTP was divided into 3 phases (Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3) so that an accurate measurement can be obtained by using gold foil activation method. This value was used as a benchmark for the neutron flux produced from the thermal column. The collimator was designed using different types of materials, and their characteristic towards gamma and neutron flux was investigated. The reviewed demonstrated that the final thermal neutron flux produced was significantly for BNCT purpose. Lastly, this paper recommends the future research can be conducted on BNCT at RTP

    A design on the collimator for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) research facility at the thermal column of TRIGA MARK II

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    The development of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) facility in Malaysia can be performed at the thermal column of the Malaysia research reactor. TRIGA MARK II is one of the facilities that can provide neutron source for BNCT facility. The specification of neutron flux and the gamma dose rate must consider for the development of the BNCT facility as a safety precaution for this research. Based on previous research, the thermal column identified as a suitable place for BNCT facility. To design the neutron collimator for BNCT purpose, the characterization of material towards thermal neutron flux explored using TLD and Microspec-6 and the collimator design was simulate using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software based on the characterize materials in order to produce high thermal neutron flux. The combination of lead, HDPE, 30% borated polyethylene and aluminium as collimator design D1 simulate the highest thermal neutron 1.5770 x 109 neutron.cm−2s−1 and suitable for BNCT research purpose at the thermal column
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