35 research outputs found

    Bio-Efficacy of Aureofungin-sol in Control of Downy and Powdery Mildews in Grape

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    Bio-efficacy of Aureofungin-sol, an antifungal antibiotic, for control of downy mildew and powdery mildew of grape was evaluated during October 2008 - April 2009 fruiting season in vineyards at three locations in Maharashtra. Four to nine sprays of Aureofungin-sol, @ 0.108, 0.163 and 0.217 g/l, starting from 12-16 days to 46-75 days after fruit pruning gave good control of downy mildew on leaves and bunches, and increased harvestable yield over the Control. Similarly, four sprays of Aureofungin-sol @ 0.108 g/l at 11 to 20 days' interval at 65 days after pruning provided complete control of powdery mildew on leaves and bunches. No residue of Aureofungin-sol was found in harvest samples above the limit of detection (0.1 mg/kg)

    Development of Useful Recombinant Promoter and Its Expression Analysis in Different Plant Cells Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

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    BACKGROUND: Designing functionally efficient recombinant promoters having reduced sequence homology and enhanced promoter activity will be an important step toward successful stacking or pyramiding of genes in a plant cell for developing transgenic plants expressing desired traits(s). Also basic knowledge regarding plant cell specific expression of a transgene under control of a promoter is crucial to assess the promoter's efficacy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have constructed a set of 10 recombinant promoters incorporating different up-stream activation sequences (UAS) of Mirabilis mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript (MS8, -306 to +27) and TATA containing core domains of Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FS3, -271 to +31). Efficacies of recombinant promoters coupled to GUS and GFP reporter genes were tested in tobacco protoplasts. Among these, a 369-bp long hybrid sub-genomic transcript promoter (MSgt-FSgt) showed the highest activity in both transient and transgenic systems. In a transient system, MSgt-FSgt was 10.31, 2.86 and 2.18 times more active compared to the CaMV35S, MS8 and FS3 promoters, respectively. In transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum, var. Samsun NN) and Arabidopsis plants, the MSgt-FSgt hybrid promoter showed 14.22 and 7.16 times stronger activity compared to CaMV35S promoter respectively. The correlation between GUS activity and uidA-mRNA levels in transgenic tobacco plants were identified by qRT-PCR. Both CaMV35S and MSgt-FSgt promoters caused gene silencing but the degree of silencing are less in the case of the MSgt-FSgt promoter compared to CaMV35S. Quantification of GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by the MSgt-FSgt and the CaMV35S promoter were estimated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and compared. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We propose strong recombinant promoter MSgt-FSgt, developed in this study, could be very useful for high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells

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    Not AvailableLeaf disc sensitivity assay showed that EC50 value of P. viticola isolates against chitosan was 64.70 ± 12.76 μg l-1 and in field trial foliar applications of chitosan significantly provided 57 per cent control of downy mildew on grape leaves and 70 per cent control on bunch. Three integrated disease management schedules were prepared and implemented in field by substituting 6 fungicide applications with soil application of ISR strains of Trichoderma and Bacillus or foliar application of chitosan or by reduction of 7 fungicide applications by use of activated potassium salt of long chain phosphorus (APSP) with multisite low risk fungicides. The field trial showed that all the schedules were equally effective as farmers’ practice for disease control even with 6 -7 less fungicide applications. In schedule 2 Bacillus DR- 92 recorded more number of bunches and yield per vine, while in schedule 3 with chitosan had better shelf-life. This study brings out the possibility of integrating soil application of microorganisms, with foliar applications of APSP and chitosan along with need based application of low risk fungicides indicates potential for management of fungicide resistance and fungicide residues in vineyards.Not Availabl

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    Not AvailableDifferent degrees of susceptibility were examined among the thirty eight germplasms of V. vinifera, V. labrusca and other multispecies hybrid of Vitis against Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola under greenhouse conditions. Thompson Seedless and its mutant varieties which belong to V. vinifera were highly susceptible. Among tested germplasms of V. labrusca only Bangalore purple showed high susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola. Other germplasms of V. labrusca and other multispecies hybrids showed eitherlow degree of susceptibility or resistant to bacterial leaf spot pathogen. Among the V. vinifera germplasms, white-seedless germplasms were susceptible to highly susceptible and coloured-seeded germplasms were found resistant. This study was performed to investigate putative varietal resistance against Xcv, to devise support for disease management.Not Availabl

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    Not AvailableBacterial leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Nayudu) Dye has emerged as an important disease in grape growing regions of Maharashtra. In this study the bactericidal effect of different chemicals and biological agents were assessed in in-vitro conditions. Eleven different commercially formulated chemicals (streptocycline, bronopol, mancozeb, copper sulphate, copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide, carbendazim, difenoconazole, validamycin, kasugamycin and potassium phosphite) were tested at 50, 100, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm concentrations. Three biological agents viz., Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma as perolloides and Pseudomonas fluorescens were also evaluated against X. campestris pv. viticola. Among different chemicals, streptocycline, mancozeb and bronopol showed significant inhibition of the pathogen while kasugamycin, copper oxychloride and copper hydroxide exhibited a low efficacy with respect to control of the bacteria. Copper sulphate, validamycin, difenoconazole, carbendazim and potassium phosphate showed no inhibition at all tested concentrations. In biological agents B. subtilis and T. asperolloides have potential against X. campestris pv. viticola, pathogen of bacterial leaf spot disease of grapesNot Availabl

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    Not AvailableFive Fusarium species viz. Fusarium delphinoides (MCC 1343), F. brachygibbosum (MCC 1344), F. pseudonygamai (MCC 1345, MCC 1346) and a Fusarium sp. (MCC 1347) isolated from Plasmopara viticola collected from vineyards were used for the studies. In in vitro studies, all Fusarium species coiled around P. viticola sporangiophores and caused distortion of sporangia. Pre-treatment of leaf discs with Fusarium species reduced sporangial production of P. viticola by 60 to 75%. Extracellular lytic enzymes screening showed that all five species produced beta-glucanase, chitinase and protease enzymes. In the small scale field trial the five species significantly reduced downy mildew incidence on leaves and bunch as compare untreated control. The area under disease progress curce (AUDPC) ranged from 199.25 to 212.41 for leaves and 29.69 to 55.79 for bunch in Fusarium treated vines. The AUDPC in untreated control was 331.47 on leaves and 185.32 on bunch. These Fusarium species show potential for biological control of downy mildew of grapes.Not Availabl

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    Not AvailableDifferent degrees of susceptibility were examined among the thirty eight germplasms of V. vinifera, V. labrusca and other multispecies hybrid of Vitis against Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola under greenhouse conditions. Thompson Seedless and its mutant varieties which belong to V. vinifera were highly susceptible. Among tested germplasms of V. labrusca only Bangalore purple showed high susceptibility to Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola. Other germplasms of V. labrusca and other multispecies hybrids showed either low degree of susceptibility or resistant to bacterial leaf spot pathogen. Among the V. vinifera germplasms, white-seedless germplasms were susceptible to highly susceptible and coloured-seeded germplasms were found resistant. This study was performed to investigate putative varietal resistance against Xcv, to devise support for disease management.Not Availabl

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    Not AvailableCarbendazim is the only systemic fungicide recommended for anthracnose disease management in India, but its frequent use leads to increase in resistant strains compromising disease management. The present study was undertaken to find out carbendazim resistance in natural field population of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of grape anthracnose. Three hundred and seventy nine isolates of C. gloeosporioides from the culture collection of ICAR-National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune, India, were screened for determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of carbendazim. Most of the isolates were found to be moderately resistant MIC, >10 - 1000 μg/ml; while only five isolates were sensitive to carbendazim with MIC value less than <1 μg/ml. Fifty three isolates with broad range of MIC for carbendazim were selected to study their sensitivity to fungicides of different chemical groups, quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI), demethylation Inhibitors (DMI), copper oxychloride and propineb apart from carbendazim. The effective concentration at 50% mycelium inhibition (EC50) values ranged from 0.09 to 75.39 μg/ml for carbendazim, 243.79 to 399.46 μg/ml for copper oxychloride, and 220.31 to 6664.50 μg/ml for propineb. These isolates were also found sensitive to azoxystrobin with EC50 values 0.22 to 6.63 μg/ml and for flusilazole 0.04 to 2.14 μg/ml, which are recommended for control of downy and powdery mildews, respectively.Not Availabl
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