52 research outputs found

    Si-metasomatism in serpentinized peridotite: The effects of talc-alteration on strontium and boron isotopes in abyssal serpentinites from Hole 1268a, ODP Leg 209

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    Ultramafic rocks recovered from Hole 1268a, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 209, to the south of the 15°20′N Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic ridge have experienced a complex history of melt depletion and subsequent interaction with a series of fluids under varying temperature and pH conditions. After intense melt depletion, varying degrees of serpentinization at 100–200 °C took place, initially under seawater-like pH conditions. Subsequently, interaction with a higher temperature (300–350 °C) fluid with low (4–5) pH and low MgO/SiO2 resulted in the heterogeneous alteration of these serpentinites to talc-bearing ultramafic lithologies. The proximity of the currently active, high temperature Logatchev hydrothermal field, located on the opposite flank of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, suggests that unlike more distal localities sampled during ODP Leg 209, Hole 1268a has experienced Si-metasomatism (i.e. talc-alteration) by a Logatchev-like hydrothermal fluid. Serpentinite strontium isotope ratios were not materially shifted by interaction with the subsequent high-T fluid, despite the likelihood that this fluid had locally interacted with mid-ocean ridge gabbro. 87Sr/86Sr in the ultramafic lithologies of Hole 1268a are close to that of seawater (c.0.709) and even acid leached serpentinites retain 87Sr/86Sr in excess of 0.707, indistinguishable from Logatchev hydrothermal fluid. On the other hand, boron isotope ratios appear to have been shifted from seawater-like values in the serpentinites (δ11B = c.+40‰) to much lighter values in talc-altered serpentinites (δ11B = +9 to +20‰). This is likely a consequence of the effects of changing ambient pH and temperature during the mineralogical transition from serpentine to talc. Heterogeneous boron isotope systematics have consequences for the composition of ultramafic portions of the lithosphere returned to the convecting mantle by subduction. Inhomogeneities in δ11B, [B] and mineralogy introduce significant uncertainties in the prediction of the composition of slab fluids released during the early- to mid-stages of subduction

    Boron isotope insights into the origin of subduction signatures in continent-continent collision zone volcanism

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    We present the first boron abundance and δ11B data for young (1.5-0 Ma) volcanic rocks formed in an active continent-continent collision zone. The δ11B of post-collisional volcanic rocks (−5 to +2‰) from the Armenian sector of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone are heavier than mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), confirming trace element and isotope evidence for their derivation from a subduction-modified mantle source. Based on the low B/Nb (0.03-0.25 vs 0.2-90 in arc magmas), as well as low Ba/Th and Pb/Ce, this source records a subduction signature which is presently fluid-mobile element depleted relative to most arc settings. The heavier than MORB δ11B of post-collision volcanic rocks argues against derivation of their subduction signature from a stalled slab, which would be expected to produce a component with a lighter than MORB δ11B, due to previous fluid depletion. Instead, the similarity of δ11B in Plio-Pleistocene post-collision to 41 Ma alkaline igneous rocks also from Armenia (and also presented in this study), suggests that the subduction signature is inherited from Mesozoic-Paleogene subduction of Neotethys oceanic slabs. The slab component is then stored in the mantle lithosphere in amphibole, which is consistent with the low [B] in both Armenian volcanic rocks and metasomatic amphibole in mantle xenoliths. Based on trace element and radiogenic isotope systematics, this slab component is thought to be dominated by sediment melts (or supercritical fluids). Previously published δ11B of metasediments suggests a sediment-derived metasomatic agent could produce the B isotope composition observed in Armenian volcanic rocks. The lack of evidence for aqueous fluids preserved over the 40 Myr since initial collision supports observations that this latter component is transitory, while the lifetime of sediment melts/supercritical fluids can be extended to >40 Myr

    New constraints from Central Chile on the origins of enriched continental compositions in thick-crusted arc magmas

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    Magmas from continental arcs built on thick crust have elevated incompatible element abundances and “enriched” radiogenic isotope ratios compared to magmas erupted in island and continental arcs overlying thinner crust. The relative influence of the slab, mantle, and upper plate on this variability is heavily debated. The Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ; 33-46° S) is an ideal setting to investigate the production of enriched continental arc compositions, because both crustal thickness and magma chemistry vary coherently along strike. However, the scarcity of primitive magmas in the thick-crusted northern SVZ has hindered previous regional studies. To better address the origin of enriched continental compositions, we investigate the geochemistry (major and trace element abundances, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios) of new mafic samples from Don Casimiro and Maipo volcanoes in Diamante-Maipo Caldera Complex of the northern SVZ. While evolved Diamante-Maipo samples show evidence for crustal assimilation, the trace element and isotopic enrichment of the most mafic samples cannot result from crustal processing, as no known regional or global basement lithologies are enriched in all of the necessary incompatible trace elements. Subduction erosion models similarly fail to account for the enriched isotopic and trace element signature of these samples. Instead, we suggest that the enrichment of northern SVZ magmas is derived from an enriched ambient mantle component (similar to EM1-type ocean island basalts), superimposed on a northward decline in melt extent. A substantial, but nearly uniform contribution of melts from subducting sediment and altered oceanic crust are required at all latitudes. The EM1-like enrichment may arise from recycling of metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle (M-SCLM), as the isotopic trajectory of primitive rear-arc monogenetic cones trend towards the compositions of SCLM melts sampled across South America. Isotopic data from spatially distributed rear-arc centres demonstrate that the arc-parallel variations in the degree of EM1-type enrichment observed in arc-front samples are also present up to 600 km behind the trench in the rear-arc. Rear-arc trace element systematics require significant but variable quantities of slab melts to be transported to the mantle wedge at these large trench distances. Overall, we show that a unified model incorporating variable mantle enrichment, slab additions, and melt extents can account for along and acrossarc trends within the SVZ. The recognition that mantle enrichment plays a key role in the production of enriched continental compositions in the SVZ has important implications for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Earth. If ambient mantle enrichment is not taken into account, petrogenetic models of evolved lavas may overestimate the role of crustal assimilation, which, in turn, may lead models of continental crust growth to overestimate the amount of continental material that has been recycled back into the mantle

    The arc arises: The links between volcanic output, arc evolution and melt composition

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    Subduction initiation is a key process for global plate tectonics. Individual lithologies developed during subduction initiation and arc inception have been identified in the trench wall of the Izu–Bonin–Mariana (IBM) island arc but a continuous record of this process has not previously been described. Here, we present results from International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351 that drilled a single site west of the Kyushu–Palau Ridge (KPR), a chain of extinct stratovolcanoes that represents the proto-IBM island arc, active for ∼25 Ma following subduction initiation. Site U1438 recovered 150 m of oceanic igneous basement and ∼1450 m of overlying sediments. The lower 1300 m of these sediments comprise volcaniclastic gravity-flow deposits shed from the evolving KPR arc front. We separated fresh magmatic minerals from Site U1438 sediments, and analyzed 304 glass (formerly melt) inclusions, hosted by clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Compositions of glass inclusions preserve a temporal magmatic record of the juvenile island arc, complementary to the predominant mid-Miocene to recent activity determined from tephra layers recovered by drilling in the IBM forearc. The glass inclusions record the progressive transition of melt compositions dominated by an early ‘calc-alkalic’, high-Mg andesitic stage to a younger tholeiitic stage over a time period of 11 Ma. High-precision trace element analytical data record a simultaneously increasing influence of a deep subduction component (e.g., increase in Th vs. Nb, light rare earth element enrichment) and a more fertile mantle source (reflected in increased high field strength element abundances). This compositional change is accompanied by increased deposition rates of volcaniclastic sediments reflecting magmatic output and maturity of the arc. We conclude the ‘calc-alkalic’ stage of arc evolution may endure as long as mantle wedge sources are not mostly advected away from the zones of arc magma generation, or the rate of wedge replenishment by corner flow does not overwhelm the rate of magma extraction

    Implications of eocene-age philippine sea and forearc basalts for initiation and early history of the izu-bonin-mariana arc

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    Whole-rock isotope ratio (Hf, Nd, Pb, Sr) and trace element data for basement rocks at ocean drilling Sites U1438, 1201 and 447 immediately west of the KPR (Kyushu-Palau Ridge) are compared to those of FAB (forearc basalts) previously interpreted to be the initial products of IBM subduction volcanism. West-of-KPR basement basalts (drill sites U1438, 1201, 447) and FAB occupy the same Hf-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic space and share distinctive source characteristics with εHf mostly >16.5 and up to εHf =19.8, which is more radiogenic than most Indian mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Lead isotopic ratios are depleted, with ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁴Pb = 17.8-18.8 accompanying relatively high ²⁰⁸Pb/²⁰⁴Pb, indicating an Indian-MORB source unlike that of West Philippine Basin plume basalts. Some Sr isotopes show affects of seawater alteration, but samples with ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr8.0 appear to preserve magmatic compositions and also indicate a common source for west-of-KPR basement and FAB. Trace element ratios resistant to seawater alteration (La/Yb, Lu/Hf, Zr/Nb, Sm/Nd) in west-of-KPR basement are generally more depleted than normal MORB and so also appear similar to FAB. At Site U1438, only andesite sills intruding sedimentary rocks overlying the basement have subduction-influenced geochemical characteristics (εNd ∼6.6, εHf ∼13.8, La/Yb > 2.5, Nd/Hf ∼9). The key characteristic that unites drill site basement rocks west of KPR and FAB is the nature of their source, which is more depleted in lithophile trace elements than average MORB but with Hf, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios that are common in MORB. The lithophile element-depleted nature of FAB has been linked to initiation of IBM subduction in the Eocene, but Sm-Nd model ages and errorchron relationships in Site U1438 basement indicate that the depleted character of the rocks is a regional characteristic that was produced well prior to the time of subduction initiation and persists today in the source of modern IBM arc volcanic rocks with Sm/Nd>0.34 and εNd ∼9.0

    Blueschist from the Mariana forearc records long-lived residence of material in the subduction channel

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    From ca. 50 Ma to present, the western Pacific plate has been subducting under the Philippine Sea plate, forming the oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system. It is the only known location where subduction zone products are presently being transported to the surface by serpentinite-mud volcanoes. A large serpentine mud “volcano” forms the South Chamorro Seamount and was successfully drilled by ODP during Leg 195. This returned mostly partially serpentinized harzburgites enclosed in serpentinite muds. In addition, limited numbers of small (1 mm–1 cm) fragments of rare blueschists were also discovered. U–Pb dating of zircon and rutile from one of these blueschist clasts give ages of 51.1 ± 1.2 Ma and 47.5 ± 2.0 Ma, respectively. These are interpreted to date prograde high-pressure metamorphism. Mineral equilibria modelling of the blueschist clast suggests the mineral assemblage formed at conditions of ∼1.6 GPa and ∼590 °C. We interpret that this high-pressure assemblage formed at a depth of ∼50 km within the subduction channel and was subsequently exhumed and entrained into the South Chamorro serpentinite volcano system at depths of ∼27 km. Consequently, we propose that the material erupted from the South Chamarro Seamount may be sampling far greater depths within the Mariana subduction system than previously thought. The apparent thermal gradient implied by the pressure–temperature modelling (∼370 °C/GPa) is slightly warmer than that predicted by typical subduction channel numerical models and other blueschists worldwide. The age of the blueschist suggests it formed during the arc initiation stages of the proto-Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, with the P–T conditions recording thermally elevated conditions during initial stages of western Pacific plate subduction. This indicates the blueschist had prolonged residence time in the stable forearc as the system underwent east-directed rollback. The Mariana blueschist shows that subduction products can remain entrained in subduction channels for many millions of years prior to exhumation

    Alkaline magmas in zones of continental convergence: The Tezhsar volcano-intrusive ring complex, Armenia

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    Alkaline igneous rocks are relatively rare in settings of tectonic convergence and little is known about their petrogenesis in these settings. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the formation of alkaline igneous rocks by an investigation of the Tezhsar volcano-intrusive alkaline ring complex (TAC) in the Armenian Lesser Caucasus, which is located between the converging Eurasian and Arabian plates. We present new petrological, geochemical and SrNd isotope data for the TAC to constrain magma genesis and magma source characteristics. Moreover, we provide a new 40Ar/39Ar age of 41.0 ± 0.5 Ma on amphibole from a nepheline syenite that is integrated into the regional context of ongoing regional convergence and widespread magmatism. The TAC is spatially concentric and measures ~10 km in diameter representing the relatively shallow plumbing system of a major stratovolcano juxtaposed by ring faulting with its extrusive products. The plutonic units comprise syenites and nepheline syenites, whereas the extrusive units are dominated by trachytic-phonolitic rocks. The characteristic feature of the TAC is the development of pseudomorphs after leucite in all types of the volcanic, subvolcanic and intrusive alkaline rocks. Whole-rock major element data show a metaluminous (Alkalinity Index = 0–0.1), alkalic and silica-undersaturated (Feldspathoid Silica-Saturation Index <0) character of the TAC. The general trace element enrichment and strong fractionation of REEs (LaN/YbN up to 70) indicate a relatively enriched magma source and small degrees of partial melting. All TAC rocks show a negative NbTa anomalies typical of subduction zone settings. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704–0.705) and positive εNd values (+3 to +5) indicate an isotopically depleted upper mantle and lack of significant crustal influence, which in turn suggests the TAC magma has formed via differentiation from lithospheric mantle melts. Regionally, the age of ~41 Ma places the TAC amid a Lesser Caucasian Eocene period of dominantly calc-alkaline magmatism. The TAC's arc-like geochemical signatures are interpreted to result from prior subduction of the Tethyan slab beneath the Eurasian continental margin. The alkaline character, distinct from regional trends, is attributed to Neotethyan slab rollback causing extension and inducing small degrees of decompression melting of metasomatised lithospheric mantle

    Challenges of determining frequency and magnitudes of explosive eruptions even with an unprecedented stratigraphy

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    Through decades of field studies and laboratory analyses, Volcán de Colima, Mexico has one of the best known proximal eruption stratigraphies of any volcano, yet the frequency and magnitudes of previous eruptions are still poorly resolved. Hazard assessments based on models of well-known, well-mapped recent eruptions may appear to have low uncertainty, but may be biased by the nature of those events. We present a comprehensive stratigraphy of explosive eruption deposits combining new data collected as part of this study together with published and unpublished data. For the first time we have been able to model five of the best exposed and cross-correlated pre-historical Holocene explosive events at Volcán de Colima. By modelling the volumes and magnitudes of Holocene eruptions at Volcán de Colima, we are able to improve estimations of the potential range of magnitudes of future explosive eruptions, which can be incorporated into hazard assessments for nearby communities. Based on recent studies we demonstrate that these volumes may be underestimated by at least an order of magnitude, and show that even with an exceptionally well-defined stratigraphic record our understanding of the full range of explosive eruptions may still be biased

    Origin of negative cerium anomalies in subduction-related volcanic samples: Constraints from Ce and Nd isotopes

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    Negative Cerium (Ce) anomalies are observed in chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element patterns from various volcanic arc suites. These anomalies are well defined in volcanic rocks from the Mariana arc and have been interpreted as the result of addition of subducted sediments to the arc magma sources. This study combines ¹⁴³Nd/¹⁴⁴Nd and ¹³⁸Ce/¹⁴²Ce isotope measurements in Mariana volcanic rocks that have Ce anomalies ranging from 0.97 to 0.90. The dataset includes sediments sampled immediately before subduction at the Mariana Trench (Sites 801 and 802 of ODP Leg 129) and primitive basalts from the Southern Mariana Trough (back-arc basin). Binary mixing models between the local depleted mantle and an enriched end-member using both types of sediment (biosiliceous and volcaniclastic) found in the sedimentary column in front of the arc are calculated. Marianas arc lavas have Ce and Nd isotopic compositions that require <2.5% of a sediment component derived from the volcaniclastics. With this proportion of sediment, most of the Ce/Ce* range measured in lavas is reproduced. Thus, this study confirms that the origin of the Ce anomalies in the Mariana arc magmas can be principally attributed to recycling of trench sediments through active subduction. The participation of a component derived from biosiliceous sediments does not explain the Ce-Nd isotope composition of the lavas because the involved proportion is too high (up to 8%) in comparison to results obtained from other geochemical proxys. Using this end-member, the modeled Ce anomalies are also too high (0.91–0.84) in comparison to those measured in lavas. Various processes and conditions are able to generate Ce anomalies: oxygen fugacity, residual mineral phases, partial melting, fractional crystallization and tropical weathering. Their influence in the case of Mariana volcanic arc magmas seems to be very limited but partial melting effect may explain the lowest measured Ce/Ce* values. Magmatic processes cannot be definitely ruled out in producing Ce anomalies in other arc system environments. Additional experimental data, however, are needed for a better understanding of the behavior of cerium relative to its neighboring elements. Also, this study highlights the importance of using local depleted mantle and sediments to model the isotopic compositions of arc lavas

    A limited role for metasomatized sub-arc mantle in the generation of boron isotope signatures of arc volcanic rocks

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    Metasomatized sub-arc mantle is often regarded as one of the mantle reservoirs enriched in fluid mobile elements (FME, e.g. B, Li, Cs, As, Sb, Ba, Rb, Pb) which, when subject to wet melting, will contribute to the characteristic FME-rich signature of arc volcanic rocks. Evidence of wet melts in the sub-arc mantle wedge is recorded in metasomatic amphibole-, phlogopite- and pyroxene-bearing veins in ultramafic xenoliths recovered from arc volcanoes. Our new B and δ11B study of such veins in mantle xenoliths from Avachinsky and Shiveluch volcanoes, Kamchatka arc, indicates that slab-derived FME, including B and its characteristically high δ11B, are delivered directly to a melt that experiences limited interaction with the surrounding mantle before eruption. The exceptionally low B contents (from 0.2 to 3.1 µg g-1) and low δ11B (from -16.6 to +0.9 ‰) of mantle xenolith vein minerals are, instead, products of fluids and melts released from the isotopically light subducted and dehydrated altered oceanic crust (AOC) and, to a lesser extent, from isotopically heavy serpentinite. Therefore, melting of amphibole-, and phlogopite-bearing veins in metasomatized mantle wedge cannot alone produce the characteristic FME geochemistry of arc volcanic rocks, which require a comparatively large, isotopically heavy and B-rich serpentinite-derived fluid component in their source
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