2,069 research outputs found

    Cultural and molecular evidence of Legionella spp. Colonization in dental unit waterlines: Which is the best method for risk assessment?

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    Legionella spp. are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella in DUWLs and tap water samples using PMA-qPCR and standard culture methods. The total viable counts (TVCs) of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in the samples were also determined. Legionella spp. were detected and quantified using the modified ISO 11731 culture method. Extracted genomic DNA was analysed using the iQ-Check Quanti Legionella spp. kit, and the TVCs were determined according to the ISO protocol 6222. Legionella spp. were detected in 100% of the samples using the PMA-qPCR method, whereas these bacteria were detected in only 7% of the samples using the culture method. The number of colony forming units (CFUs) of the TVCs in the DUWL and tap water samples differed, with the bacterial load being significantly lower in the tap water samples (p-value = 0). The counts obtained were within the Italian standard range established for potable water in only 5% of the DUWL water samples and in 77% of the tap water samples. Our results show that the level of Legionella spp. contamination determined using the culture method does not reflect the true scale of the problem, and consequently we recommend testing for the presence of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria based on the assumption that Legionella spp. are components of biofilms

    The role of chemical products at low doses in preventing the proliferation of bacteria in dental unit waterlines: the ICX® experience.

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    Abstract In this study we evaluated (1) the efficacy of a protocol that combines hydrogen peroxide (shock treatment) and ICX® tablets (continuous treatment) for the control of microbial contamination in dental unit water lines, and (2) the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ICX® tablets on collection and wild strains isolated from dental chair output waters. To assess the treatment effectiveness, the microbial load in the output water samples of three dental chairs were investigated: one control chair received only shock treatment. In vitro bactericidal activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Data obtained from samples collected from chairs treated with ICX® and shock treatment and data from the control chair did not differ significantly on the basis of microbial load. In the in vitro study, the product was unable to kill Gram-negative bacteria. These results show that the continuous introduction of ICX® was not effective in maintaining low counts of the heterotrophic bacteria in the output water of dental devices, and shock treatment may be needed more frequently than monthly

    Digitalization and Spatial Documentation of Post-Earthquake Temporary Housing in Central Italy: An Integrated Geomatic Approach Involving UAV and a GIS-Based System

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    Geoinformation and aerial data collection are essential during post-earthquake emergency response. This research focuses on the long-lasting spatial impacts of temporary solutions, which have persisted in regions of Central Italy affected by catastrophic seismic events over the past 25 years, significantly and permanently altering their landscapes. The paper analyses the role of geomatic and photogrammetric tools in documenting the emergency process and projects in post-disaster phases. An Atlas of Temporary Architectures is proposed, which defines a common semantic and geometric codification for mapping temporary housing from territorial to urban and building scales. The paper presents an implementation of attribute specification in existing official cartographic data, including geometric entities in a 3D GIS data model platform for documenting and digitalising these provisional contexts. To achieve this platform, UAV point clouds are integrated with non-metric data to ensure a complete description in a multiscalar approach. Accurate topographic modifications can be captured by extracting very high-resolution orthophotos and elevation models (DSM and DTM). The results have been validated in Visso (Macerata), a small historical mountain village in Central Italy which was heavily damaged by the seismic events of 2016/2017. The integrated approach overcomes the existing gaps and emphasizes the importance of managing heterogeneous geospatial emergency data for classification purposes. It also highlights the need to enhance an interoperable knowledge base method for post-disaster temporary responses. By combining geomatic tools with architectural studies, these visualization techniques can support national and local organizations responsible for post-earthquake management through a 3D modelling method to aid future transformations or interventions following other natural disasters

    Evaluating Augmented and Virtual Reality in Education Through a User-Centered Comparative Study

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    none5Augmented and virtual reality proved to be valuable solutions to convey contents in a more appealing and interac- tive way. Given the improvement of mobile and smart devices in terms of both usability and computational power, contents can be easily conveyed with a realism level never reached in the past. Despite the tremendous number of researches related with the presentation of new fascinating applications of ancient goods and artifacts augmenta- tion, few papers are focusing on the real effect these tools have on learning. Within the framework of SmartMarca project, this chapter focuses on assessing the potential of AR/VR applications specifically designed for cultural heritage. Tests have been conducted on classrooms of teenagers to whom different learning approaches served as an evaluation method about the effectiveness of using these technologies for the education process. The chapter argues on the necessity of developing new tools to enable users to become producers of contents of AR/VR experiences.openPierdicca, Roberto; Frontoni, Emanuele; Puggioni, Maria Paola; Malinverni, Eva Savina; Paolanti, MarinaPierdicca, Roberto; Frontoni, Emanuele; Puggioni, Maria Paola; Malinverni, Eva Savina; Paolanti, Marin

    Increasing Chemotherapy in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: From Dose Intensity and Density to Megadoses

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    Abstract The hypothesis that increasing cytotoxic dose intensity will improve cancer cure rates is compelling. Although supporting evidence for this hypothesis has accrued for several tumor types, including lymphomas, breast cancer, and testicular cancers, it remains unproven. Small-cell lung cancer is extremely chemo- and radiosensitive, with a response rate of 80% achieved routinely, but few patients are cured by chemoradiotherapy. In this setting, increased cytotoxic dose intensity might improve cure rates. The finding that response rates in small-cell lung cancer correlate with received cytotoxic dose intensity merely confirms that "less is worse" and "more is better." Within conventional ranges, dose intensity can be increased with the support of hematopoietic growth factors and/or by shortening treatments intervals; however, dose intensity could be increased by only 20%–30%, and a survival advantage has not been clearly demonstrated. Given its high chemosensitivity, small-cell lung cancer was one of the first malignancies deemed suitable for increasing dose intensity and even for the use of a megadose with the support of autologous bone marrow transplantation. Some interest is emerging again due to improvements in supportive care, such as the availability of hematopoietic growth factors and peripheral blood progenitor cells

    Search for ADD Extra Dimensional Gravity in Dimuon Channel with the CMS Detector

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    In this work a possibility to observe TeV-scale gravity signals at the LHC is discussed. The ADD scenario with large extra dimensions and KK-modes virtual contribution into Drell-Yan processes are considered. A full simulation and reconstruction analysis was carried out to derive the CMS discovery potential for ADD virtual production by studying muon pairs with large invariant masses

    A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison of the Long-Term Effects of Metoprolol Versus Carvedilol

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    Background—Both metoprolol and carvedilol produce hemodynamic and clinical benefits in patients with chronic heart failure; carvedilol exerts greater antiadrenergic effects than metoprolol, but it is unknown whether this pharmacological difference results in hemodynamic and clinical differences between the 2 drugs. Methods and Results—We randomized 150 patients with heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.35) to double-blind treatment with either metoprolol or carvedilol. When compared with metoprolol (124±55 mg/d), patients treated with carvedilol (49±18 mg/d) showed larger increases in left ventricular ejection fraction at rest (+10.9±11.0 versus +7.2±7.7 U, P=0.038) and in left ventricular stroke volume and stroke work during exercise (both P<0.05) after 13 to 15 months of treatment. In addition, carvedilol produced greater decreases in mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure, both at rest and during exercise, than metoprolol (all P<0.05). In contrast, the metoprolol gr..

    Inverse association of circulating SIRT1 and adiposity. A study on underweight, normal weight, and obese patients

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    Context: Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent deacetylases, cellular sensors to detect energy availability, and modulate metabolic processes. SIRT1, the most studied family member, influences a number of tissues including adipose tissue. Expression and activity of SIRT1 reduce with weight gain and increase in conditions of starvation. Objective: To focus on SIRT1 plasma concentrations in different conditions of adiposity and to correlate SIRT1 with fat content and distribution, energy homeostasis and inflammation in under-weight, normal-weight, and obese individuals. Materials and Methods: 21 patients with anorexia nervosa, 26 normal-weight and 75 patients with obesity were evaluated. Body fat composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound liver adiposity, echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT), inflammatory (ESR, CRP, and fibrinogen), and metabolic (FPG, insulin, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) parameters, calculated basal metabolic rate (BMR) and plasma SIRT1 (ELISA) were measured. Results: SIRT1 was significantly higher in anorexic patients compared to normal-weight and obese patients (3.27 ± 2.98, 2.27 ± 1.13, and 1.36 ± 1.31 ng/ml, respectively). Linear regression models for each predictor variable adjusted for age and sex showed that SIRT1 concentration was inversely and significantly correlated with EFT, fat mass %, liver fat content, BMR, weight, BMI, WC, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, ESR. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age and EFT were the best independent correlates of SIRT1 (β = -0.026 ± 0.011, p = 0.025, and β = -0.516 ± 0.083, p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Plasma SIRT1 shows a continuous pattern that inversely follows the whole spectrum of adiposity. SIRT1 significantly associates with EFT, a strong index of visceral fat phenotype, better than other indexes of adiposity studied here
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