27 research outputs found

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) staining

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with SDH. Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Dihydropyridine receptor alpha 1 (DHPRα1) localization

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-DHPRα1 antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) in the cytoplasm and subsarcolemma of DHPRα1 (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic DHPRα1 IR (e-h). Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ion ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) localization

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-SERCA2a antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) of SERCA2a in the cytoplasm (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic IR of SERCA2a (e-h). Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with HE. Arrowheads indicate spikes and lakes in cytoplasm (e-h). Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Temperature–amplitude coupling for stable biological rhythms at different temperatures

    No full text
    <div><p>Most biological processes accelerate with temperature, for example cell division. In contrast, the circadian rhythm period is robust to temperature fluctuation, termed temperature compensation. Temperature compensation is peculiar because a system-level property (i.e., the circadian period) is stable under varying temperature while individual components of the system (i.e., biochemical reactions) are usually temperature-sensitive. To understand the mechanism for period stability, we measured the time series of circadian clock transcripts in cultured C6 glioma cells. The amplitudes of <i>Cry1</i> and <i>Dbp</i> circadian expression increased significantly with temperature. In contrast, other clock transcripts demonstrated no significant change in amplitude. To understand these experimental results, we analyzed mathematical models with different network topologies. It was found that the geometric mean amplitude of gene expression must increase to maintain a stable period with increasing temperatures and reaction speeds for all models studied. To investigate the generality of this temperature–amplitude coupling mechanism for period stability, we revisited data on the yeast metabolic cycle (YMC) period, which is also stable under temperature variation. We confirmed that the YMC amplitude increased at higher temperatures, suggesting temperature-amplitude coupling as a common mechanism shared by circadian and 4 h-metabolic rhythms.</p></div

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ion ATPase 1 (SERCA1) localization

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-SERCA1 antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) of SERCA1 in the cytoplasm (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic IR of SERCA1 (e-h). Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) staining

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with mATPase (pH10.7). Lightly and darkly stained muscle fibers were classified as type I and type II muscle fibers, respectively. Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Modified Gomori’s trichrome staining

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with modified Gomori’s trichrome. Arrowheads indicate red materials in cytoplasm (e-h). Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) localization

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-RyR1 antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) in the cytoplasm and subsarcolemma of RyR1 (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic RyR1 IR (e-h). Scale bar = 50 μm. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Sensitivities of period and amplitude to temperature in a detailed mammalian circadian model [30].

    No full text
    <p>(A-D) Temperature-dependent time series of oscillatory variables for the model proposed by Kim and Forger (2012). We used the original parameter set described [<a href="http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005501#pcbi.1005501.ref030" target="_blank">30</a>] and randomly increased the reaction rate parameters. Here we show examples of calculated time series for <i>Bmal1</i>, <i>Per2</i>, <i>Cry1</i>, and <i>Reverb</i> mRNAs at high (red) and low temperature (blue). Parameter values are listed in <a href="http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005501#pcbi.1005501.s001" target="_blank">S1 Text</a>. (E) Distribution of geometric mean of all relative amplitudes (180 variables) as a function of relative period for 2,495 parameter sets as reaction rates are increased. We randomly increased parameter values from 1.1- to 1.9-fold and generated a total of 10,000 parameter sets. The average parameter increase was ~1.5-fold. Of these sets, oscillations are sustained for 2,495. For each set, we plot the distribution of period change. (F) Variation in the parameter sets yielding relatively stable period (ratio of the new period to the original period >0.8). We assume that the parameter for “volume ratio between cytosol and nucleus (<i>Nf</i>)” is not sensitive to temperature and so was fixed. Ordinary differential equations were solved numerically using the Euler method with Δ<i>t</i> = 0.001.</p
    corecore