13 research outputs found

    Having a Lime: Remote Qualitative Research Training for Novice Global Health Researchers in the Caribbean

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    In the Caribbean, to lime is to socialize, or hang out. It is a fundamental aspect of Caribbean culture—when you lime, you build connections and become part of a community. Bringing the lime into science requires trust, dedicated community engagement, and local capacity for conducting research. In this presentation, we will share our experiences using an online network to train local residents and stakeholders on qualitative research methods. The Lifestyle Intervention with Metformin Escalation (LIME) study seeks to reduce the prevalence of diabetes among high-risk individuals in Barbados, Puerto Rico, Trinidad & Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Local research teams interviewed patients and providers from each island study site about the LIME intervention as well as individual and cultural beliefs about diabetes. We will describe our collaborative research training approach, which integrates remote instruction and hands-on practice into every aspect of the study, from instrument development through coding and analysis. We will share practical examples from the virtual curriculum, which includes independent readings, peer practice, feedback sessions, and group discussions. We will candidly discuss the benefits and drawbacks of an online network, particularly regarding accessibility and sustainability. Our online training was used to both effectively conduct an evaluation of an implementation science study and to strengthen regional research capacity. Strengthening research capacity helps ensure equitable partnerships across the science and research enterprise, particularly for global health research collaborations that span different countries and institutions. Come lime with us

    RL-Assisted Energy-Aware User-Edge Association for IoT-based Hierarchical Federated Learning

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    The extremely heavy global reliance on IoT devices is causing enormous amounts of data to be gathered and shared in IoT networks. Such data need to efficiently be used in training and deploying of powerful artificially intelligent models for better future event detection and decision making. However, IoT devices suffer from many limitations regarding their energy budget, computational power, and storage space. Therefore, efficient solutions have to be studied and proposed for addressing these limitations. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient Hierarchical Federated Learning (HFL) framework with optimized client-edge association and resource allocation. This was done by formulating and solving a communication energy minimization problem that takes into consideration the data distribution of the clients and the communication latency between the clients and edges. We also implement an alternative less complex solution leveraging Reinforcement Learning (RL) that provides a fast user-edge association and resource allocation response in highly dynamic HFL networks. The proposed two solutions are compared with several state-of-the-art client-edge association techniques, leveraging MNIST dataset. Moreover, we study the trade-off between minimizing the per-round energy consumption and Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD) of the data distribution, and its effect on the total energy consumption.This work was made possible by NPRP grant # NPRP13S-0205-200265 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation)

    Impact of sex differences on outcomes of peripheral artery disease Intervention (from a nationwide sample)

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    We aimed to evaluate the role of sex differences in the outcomes of catheter-based peripheral arterial disease (PAD) interventions on a national level. We queried the National Inpatient Sample Database and identified all patients who presented with acute or symptomatic chronic limb ischemia (CLI) requiring transcatheter non-surgical peripheral intervention in the years of 2016 - 2017. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as the composite endpoint of in-hospital mortality, non-fatal stroke, and acute myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary endpoint, vascular complications, major bleeding, acute kidney injury, limb amputation, total cost, and length of stay. A total of 58,165 patients were included. The majority were males (57.2%) and of white race (67.1%). On multivariate analysis, female sex was an independent predictor of MACE with an adjusted odd ratio (a-OR) of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.12 - 1.65, p = 0.002), mortality (a-OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.12 - 2.04, p = 0.006), non-fatal stroke (a-OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.56 - 4.03, p \u3c 0.001), major bleeding (a-OR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.53 - 2.28, p \u3c 0.001), and higher cost with an adjusted mean ratio (a-MR) of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00 -1.06, p = 0.033). There was no significant difference in the rates of myocardial infarction, vascular complications, limb amputation, acute kidney injury, and length of stay. In conclusion, females presenting with acute or symptomatic CLI requiring transcatheter peripheral intervention have a significantly higher composite risk of MACE

    Implications for Self-Management among African Caribbean Adults with Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health Disorders: A Systematic Review

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    Mental health problems are common among individuals suffering from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Self-management is essential in preventing NCD progression. Mental health problems can impede the ability to self-manage one’s NCDs. The African Caribbean population in the United States suffers from a high burden of NCDs and has unique societal factors that alter disease management. This systematic review aimed to better understand the burden of mental health problems among African Caribbean adults with one or more NCDs and explore the association between mental health disorders and the level of control of NCDs. A literature search was conducted for original research documenting the prevalence of mental illnesses in individuals with NCDs. Data were descriptively summarized. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Three themes emerged: (1) prevalence of comorbid mental health problems and chronic NCDs; (2) factors that mitigate or mediate the association between mental health problems and chronic NCDs—(a) factors influencing self-management; (b) association between mental health and NCD outcome studies focused on (b1) risk factors and (b2) protective factors; and (3) varied results. Chronic disease self-management and disease outcomes are influenced by mental problems and the association is mitigated by complex factors in the African Caribbean population