226 research outputs found

    Nipple discharge: the state of the art

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    Over 80% of females experience nipple discharge during their life. Differently from lactational (milk production) and physiological (white, green, or yellow), which are usually bilateral and involving multiple ducts, pathologic nipple discharge (PND) is a spontaneous commonly single-duct and unilateral, clear, serous, or bloody secretion. Mostly caused by intraductal papilloma(s) or ductal ectasia, in 5-33% of cases is due to an underlying malignancy. After clinical history and physical examination, mammography is the first step after 39, but its sensitivity is low (7–26%). Ultrasound shows higher sensitivity (63–100%). Nipple discharge cytology is limited by a false negative rate over 50%. Galactography is an invasive technique that may cause discomfort and pain; it can be performed only when the duct discharge is demonstrated at the time of the study, with incomplete/failed examination rate up to 15% and a difficult differentiation between malignant and benign lesions. Ductoscopy, performed under local anesthesia in outpatients, provides a direct visualization of intraductal lesions, allowing for directed excision and facilitating a targeted surgery. Its sensitivity reaches 94%; however, it is available in only few centers and most clinicians are unfamiliar with its use. PND has recently emerged as a new indication for contrast-enhanced breast MRI, showing sensitivity superior to galactography, with an overall sensitivity up to 96%, also allowing tailored surgery. Surgery no longer can be considered the standard approach to PND. We propose a state-of-the art flowchart for the management of nipple discharge, including ductoscopy and breast MRI as best options

    overview of the role of pre operative breast mri in the absence of evidence on patient outcomes

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    The role of pre-operative breast MRI is outlined on the basis of the existing evidence in favor of a superior capability in comparison with mammography and sonography to detect ipsilateral and contralateral malignant lesions and to evaluate the disease extent, including the extensive intraductal component associated with invasive cancers. Patients with a potential higher anticipated benefit from pre-operative MRI can be identified as those: with mammographically dense breasts; with a unilateral multifocal/ multicentric cancer or a synchronous bilateral cancer already diagnosed at mammography and sonography; with a lobular invasive cancer; at high-risk for breast cancer; with a cancer which shows a discrepancy in size of >1 cm between mammography and sonography; or under consideration for partial breast irradiation. More limited evidence exists in favor of MRI for evaluating candidates for total skin sparing mastectomy or for patients with Paget's disease. Irrespective of whether the clinical team routinely uses preoperative MRI or not: women newly diagnosed with breast cancer should always be informed of the potential risks and benefits of pre-operative MRI; results of pre-operative MRI should be interpreted taking into account clinical breast examination, mammography, sonography and verified by percutaneous biopsy; MRI-only detected lesions require MR-guidance for needle biopsy and pre-surgical localization, and these should be available or potentially accessible if pre-operative MRI is to be implemented; total therapy delay due to pre-operative MRI (including MRI-induced work-up) should not exceed one month; changes in therapy planning resulting from pre-operative MRI should be decided by a multidisciplinary team

    Open issues for education in radiological research: data integrity, study reproducibility, peer-review, levels of evidence, and cross-fertilization with data scientists

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    We are currently facing extraordinary changes. A harder and harder competition in the field of science is open in each country as well as in continents and worldwide. In this context, what should we teach to young students and doctors? There is a need to look backward and return to "fundamentals", i.e. the deep characteristics that must characterize the research in every field, even in radiology. In this article, we focus on data integrity (including the "declarations" given by the authors who submit a manuscript), reproducibility of study results, and the peer-review process. In addition, we highlight the need of raising the level of evidence of radiological research from the estimation of diagnostic performance to that of diagnostic impact, therapeutic impact, patient outcome, and social impact. Finally, on the emerging topic of radiomics and artificial intelligence, the recommendation is to aim for cross-fertilization with data scientists, possibly involving them in the clinical departments

    Clinical Breast MR Using MRS or DWI: Who Is the Winner?

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    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast gained a role in clinical practice thanks to the optimal sensitivity of contrast-enhanced (CE) protocols. This approach, first proposed 30 years ago and further developed as bilateral highly spatially resolved dynamic study, is currently considered superior for cancer detection to any other technique. However, other directions than CE imaging have been explored. Apart from morphologic features on unenhanced T2-weighted images, two different non-contrast molecular approaches were mainly run in vivo: proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Both approaches have shown aspects of breast cancer (BC) hidden to CE-MRI: 1H-MRS allowed for evaluating the total choline peak (tCho) as a biomarker of malignancy; DWI showed that restricted diffusivity is correlated with high cellularity and tumor aggressiveness. Secondary evidence on the two approaches is now available from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, mainly considered in this article: pooled sensitivity ranged 71-74% for 1H-MRS and 84-91% for DWI; specificity 78-88% and 75-84%, respectively. Interesting research perspectives are opened for both techniques, including multivoxel MRS and statistical strategies for classification of MR spectra as well as diffusion tensor imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion for DWI. However, when looking at a clinical perspective, while MRS remained a research tool with important limitations, such as relatively long acquisition times, frequent low quality spectra, difficult standardization, and quantification of tCho tissue concentration, DWI has been integrated in the standard clinical protocols of breast MRI and several studies showed its potential value as a stand-alone approach for BC detection

    Changes in total choline concentration in the breast of healthy fertile young women in relation to menstrual cycle or use of oral contraceptives: a 3-T 1H-MRS study

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    BACKGROUND: To evaluate changes in total choline (tCho) absolute concentration ([tCho]) in the breast of healthy fertile women in relation to menstrual cycle (MC) or use of oral contraceptives (OC). METHODS: After institutional review board approval, we prospectively evaluated 40 healthy fertile volunteers: 20 with physiological MC, aged 28 ± 3 years (mean ± standard deviation; nOC group); 20 using OC, aged 26 ± 3 years (OC group). Hormonal assays and water-suppressed single-voxel 3-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) were performed on MC days 7, 14, and 21 in the nOC group and only on MC day 14 in the OC group. [tCho] was measured versus an external phantom. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman coefficient were used; data are given as median and interquartile interval. RESULTS: All spectra had good quality. In the nOC group, [tCho] (mM) did not change significantly during MC: 0.8 (0.3-2.4) on day 7, 0.9 (0.4-1.2) on day 14, and 0.4 (0.2-0.8) on day 21 (p = 0.963). In the OC group, [tCho] was 0.7 (0.2-1.7) mM. The between-groups difference was not significant on all days (p ≥ 0.411). All hormones except prolactin changed during MC (p ≤ 0.024). In the OC group, [tCho] showed a borderline correlation with estradiol (r = 0.458, p = 0.056), but no correlation with other hormones (p ≥ 0.128). In the nOC group, [tCho] negatively correlated with prolactin (r = -0.587, p = 0.006) on day 7; positive correlation was found with estradiol on day 14 (r = 0.679, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A tCho peak can be detected in the normal mammary gland using 3-T 1H-MRS. The [tCho] in healthy volunteers was 0.4-0.9 mM, constant over the MC and independent of OC use

    Preoperative assessment of breast cancer: Multireader comparison of contrast-enhanced MRI versus the combination of unenhanced MRI and digital breast tomosynthesis

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    To compare the sensitivity for breast cancer (BC) and BC size estimation of preoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) versus combined unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (UMRI) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)

    Provision of follow‑up care for women with a history of breast cancer following the 2016 position paper by the Italian Group for Mammographic Screening and the Italian College of Breast Radiologists by SIRM: a survey of Senonetwork Italian breast centres

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    Introduction In 2016, the Italian Group for Mammography Screening and the Italian College of Breast Radiologists by the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology recommended that screening programmes and specialist breast centres actively invite women with a history of breast cancer to follow-up imaging. Objective A survey of breast centres associated with Senonetwork, the Italian network of breast cancer services, has ofered the opportunity to assess the implementation of this recommendation. Methods A national, cross-sectional, voluntary, online survey was developed, pre-tested, and administered during the months July–October 2020. Five of the 73 questionnaire items concerned breast cancer follow-up. Results The response rate was 82/128 (65%). Of the 82 respondent centres, 69 (84%) were involved in a screening programme. Fifty-six (68%) reported the presence of a programme of active invitation to breast cancer follow-up targeted at patients living in their catchment area, with a signifcant north-to-south gradient. Four centres (5%) reported that the screening programme was responsible for actively initiating follow-up during the 10-year period since diagnosis. Only after 10 years did the proportion increase moderately. Conclusion Screening programmes have still a marginal role in active breast cancer follow-up
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