191 research outputs found

    Case Study: Factors Affecting the Behavior of School Students in the Age of Pre-Adolescence

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    Using multilevel modeling, this study sought to understand the factors affecting the behaviour of school students at the age of pre-adolescence. The study included 1977 pre-adolescents (1031 boys, 946 girls) from middle schools (Grades 4–7) in suburban areas of the United States from the Department of Children and Family (DCF) 2014 National Child and Youth Panel Survey database. The individual and environmental effects of significant factors affecting pre-adolescent behavior were studied using multilevel models. Among the characteristics linked to emotional-behavioral difficulties were BMI, study tendency, and socioeconomic status. Emotional-behavioral disorders were linked to connections with teachers, according to more studies. The school, family, friends, community, and media all negatively affect students\u27 conduct. As a result, similar educational institutions should teach students social and emotional skills. This may help reduce student disruption. Individual and environmental factors influence pre-adolescents\u27 emotional-behavioral issues. Preventing emotional-behavioral issues require addressing both the environment in which preadolescents live and their unique traits

    Impact of chemical stressors on hydrogen metabolism

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    The effects of chemical stressing agents on H 2 metabolism were evaluated using thermodynamic, biochemical, genomic and statistical methods. The objectives of this study were to examine the role of homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens exposed to different stress treatments under various fermentation conditions. Negligible H 2 consumption was observed at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature (at pH 4.5) when combined with the addition of 2 g L -1 linoleic acid (LA). Genomic analysis revealed that LA-treated cultures were dominated by Clostridium sp. whereas control cultures were dominated by homoacetogens and methanogens. Lauric acid (LUA), LA, fish oil and furfural affected H 2 consumption similarly to BES. The H 2 consumption (%) of the control and chemically treated cultures revealed the following trend: Control \u3e Fish oil = LA = Furfural \u3e BES \u3e LUA. Treatment with different stressing agents also resulted in the formation of diverse fermentation metabolites. The long-term effects of different culture pretreatments under mesophilic condition resulted in higher mean H 2 yields compared to the yields from cultures incubated at thermophilic condition (after 5 glucose additions). Hydrogen consumption studies using long term stress treated cultures showed lower consumption at thermophilic temperature than at mesophilic temperature. Uptake hydrogenase activities correlated positively with the H 2 consumption data. Genomic analysis indicated that both methanogens and homoacetogens were present in control cultures, but they were absent from the pretreated cultures. Studies conducted in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors revealed that lowering the HRT from 37.5 h to 7.5 h reduced the methane yield and increased the H 2 yield. Higher H 2 yields were obtained in cultures operated at thermophilic temperature compared to mesophilic and psychrophilic temperature using corn stalk (CS) as substrate. Cultures fed CS liquor showed lower levels of specific methanogenic activities than cultures fed pure sugars. The results from these studies indicate that all the chemical stressing agents investigated were active against H 2 consumers (methanogens in particular). In addition to different stress treatments, proper control of operational parameters such as pH, HRT and temperature is required to minimize H 2 consumption and maximize H 2 production in dark fermentation process

    Investigating the Impact of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on English as a Second Language (ESL) Instruction in the Classroom

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    This research study aimed to investigate the impact of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the classroom. The integration of CALL had gained increasing attention in language learning due to its potential to enhance instructional practices and learner outcomes. However, empirical research was needed to examine the specific effects of CALL in the ESL context. The study began with a comprehensive literature review to identify gaps and areas requiring further investigation. Specific research questions were formulated to address these gaps. The research design was determined based on the objectives, utilizing an appropriate methodology such as experimental, quasi-experimental, or mixed methods design. Participants consisted of ESL learners from a specific age group or proficiency level, and a suitable sample size and sampling method were determined. Data collection involved various methods such as surveys, observations, interviews, and pre/post-tests to gather comprehensive data. Ethical considerations were addressed, ensuring informed consent and data privacy. The collected data were analyzed using appropriate statistical or qualitative analysis techniques. The results were interpreted to answer the research questions and contribute to the understanding of the impact of CALL on ESL instruction. Visual representations, such as charts and graphs, were included to enhance the presentation of results. The discussion and conclusion provided an interpretation of the findings and their implications for ESL instruction and the integration of CALL. Comparisons with previous research were made, and the limitations of the study were acknowledged. Recommendations for ESL teachers, curriculum developers, and policymakers were provided based on the study\u27s findings. Finally, suggestions for future research were presented to further explore the potential of CALL in the ESL classroom. The research study aimed to contribute to the field of language learning and provide insights that could inform pedagogical practices and instructional design

    Finite-time passivity for neutral-type neural networks with time-varying delays – via auxiliary function-based integral inequalities

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    In this paper, we investigated the problem of the finite-time boundedness and finitetime passivity for neural networks with time-varying delays. A triple, quadrable and five integral terms with the delay information are introduced in the new Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional (LKF). Based on the auxiliary integral inequality, Writinger integral inequality and Jensen’s inequality, several sufficient conditions are derived. Finally, numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed criterion. There results are compared with the existing results.&nbsp

    Functionalization of textile cotton fabric with reduced graphene oxide/MnO2/polyaniline based electrode for supercapacitor

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    In this work, a new cotton electrode has been synthesized by coating ternary materials of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), manganese dioxide (MnO2), and polyaniline (PANi) on textile cotton fabric. First, Graphene oxide was deposited on cotton fibers by a simple 'dip and dry' method and chemically reduced into rGO/cotton fabric. MnO2 nanoparticles were accumulated on rGO/cotton fabric by in situ chemical deposition method. PANi layer was coated on rGO/MnO2/cotton fabric by in situ oxidative polymerization technique. A thin PANi coating layer acts as a protective layer on rGO/MnO2/cotton fabric to restrain MnO2 nanoparticles and rGO from dissolution in H2SO4 acidic electrolyte. The specific surface area of cotton electrode was measured using the Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) results show that the cotton electrode has good capacitive behavior. The ternary cotton electrode exhibits high specific capacitance values of 888 F g(-1) and 252 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 1 A g(-1) and 25 A g(-1) in 1MH(2)SO(4) electrolyte solution. The high areal specific capacitance of 444 Fcm(-2) was achieved for as-fabricated electrode. Also, the cotton electrode retains around 70% of specific capacitance after 3000 cycles at charge-discharge current density of 15 A g(-1). The slow decrease in specific capacitance is observed with increased discharge current density which proves its excellent rate capability. These results of rGO/MnO2/PANi/cotton fabric electrode show that this can be an excellent electrode for supercapacitor in energy storage devices

    MIGRAINE: A POSSIBLE CAUSE FOR COGNITIVE DECLINE

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    Objectives:Migraine is the second most common type of headache and seventh most disabling disease worldwide. In general, obesity is often related to headache disorders in several clinical and epidemiologic studies. Obese migraine patients may have an increased attack frequency due to increase in inflammatory response. Cognitive decline is the major pitfall of migraine disorder and there exists a conflicting result between cognition and migraine and the effect of Body Mass Index (BMI) on migraine. So this study is done to find out the relationship between cognition and migraine and its association with BMI.Methods:The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre. The study group consisted of 30 migraine patients and 30 healthy controls aged between 18-40 years of age. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Diagnosis of migraine was made using the criteria of 2nd edition of International Headache Classification (IHC). Patients affected by Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, allergy, inflammation, infection or immune disorders were excluded. Height and weight of the subjects were taken to calculate the BMI. Cognitive tests such as stroop interference trial & trial making tests (A&B) were done to evaluate working memory, mental flexibility and attention.Results:Compared to controls, cases took more time for performing stroop colour card test (106.40 ± 15.87 seconds vs. 132.17±7.027seconds, p<0.001) and trial making pattern B (54.77± 8.169 seconds vs. 56.23 ± 23.457seconds, p=0.004). Among the migraine subjects, obese individuals had an increased frequency of migraine attack per month (Correlation coefficient r=0.797)Conclusion:Cognitive decline in migraine is one of the underestimated problems in migraine. Identifying such problems early can prevent major consequences in day to day activities of migraine patients. Since there is an increased frequency of migraine with increase in BMI, obese migraine subjects can be recommended to do regular exercises.Â

    Improved results on an extended dissipative analysis of neural networks with additive time-varying delays using auxiliary function-based integral inequalities

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    The issue of extended dissipative analysis for neural networks (NNs) with additive time-varying delays (ATVDs) is examined in this research. Some less conservative sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the NNs are asymptotically stable and extended dissipative by building the agumented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which is achieved by utilizing some mathematical techniques with improved integral inequalities like auxiliary function-based integral inequalities (gives a tighter upper bound). The present study aims to solve the H,L2L H_{\infty}, L_2-L_{\infty} , passivity and (Q,S,R) (Q, S, R) -γ \gamma -dissipativity performance in a unified framework based on the extended dissipativity concept. Following this, the condition for the solvability of the designed NNs with ATVDs is presented in the form of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the practicality and effectiveness of this approach were demonstrated through four numerical examples

    Detection of pulmonary Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in HIV-infected subjects using culture and serology

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    SummaryObjectiveThe true prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections involving the respiratory tracts of HIV-infected individuals is still unclear. This study examined the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in 100 HIV-infected individuals at an AIDS care center in Chennai, India, using conventional laboratory techniques and interpretation criteria.MethodsDiagnosis was based on culture, cold agglutination test, and commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the qualitative determination of IgM antibodies against M. pneumoniae. The efficacies of the different diagnostic procedures used in the study were analyzed.ResultsThe prevalence of M. pneumoniae was 31% by culture and 21% by IgM ELISA. Cough (p=0.03, OR 3.8, 95% CI 1–17.8), myalgia (p=0.04, OR 2.5, 95% CI 1–6.6), rales (p=0.04, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1–6.6), and cervical adenopathy (p=0.03, OR 2.7, 95% CI 1–7.1) were the symptoms that significantly corroborated culture positivity. Patients positive for M. pneumoniae by culture or IgM antibody had significantly greater CD4+ T-cell depletion and anemia than those without any evidence of infection.ConclusionsThis study provides the means to diagnose M. pneumoniae infection and information on the prevalence of the pathogen in HIV-infected individuals in resource constrained settings. Although modern molecular techniques may provide more insight into the prevalence of M. pneumoniae in HIV-infected individuals, conventional methods can still be used in diagnosis

    Effect of COD: SO42- Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics

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    Biological sulfate (SO42-) reduction was examined in anaerobic sequential batch reactors (ASBRs) operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 12 to 36 h and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/SO42- ratios of 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8. Competition between SO42- reducing bacteria (SRBs), methane producing archaea (MPAs) and homoacetogens (HACs) was examined in controls and cultures treated with linoleic acid (LA). The ASBR performance was influenced by the COD/SO42- ratio in control cultures with a SO42- reduction of 87% at a COD/SO42- ratio of 0.8. At a 12 h HRT, in both control and LA treated cultures, greater than 75% SO42- removal was observed under all the conditions examined. In control reactors operating at a 36 h HRT, high levels of MPAs belonging to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales were detected; however, in comparison, under low COD/SO42- ratio and with decreasing HRT conditions, a relative increase in SRBs belonging to Desulfovibrio and Desulfatibacillum was observed. Adding 0.5 gL(-1) LA suppressed Methanobacteriales, while increasing the LA concentration to 1 gL(-1) completely suppressed MPAs with a relative increase in SRBs. HACs belonging to Bacteroidetes were observed in the control and in cultures operated at 12 h HRT with a COD/SO42- ratio of 1.6 and fed 0.5 gL(-1) LA; however, with all other LA levels (0.5 and 1.0 gL(-1)) and HRTs (12, 24 and 36 h), HACs were not detected
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