9 research outputs found

    My Library, My Story: Sarah

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    Factors Associated with Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in Calves: A Case-Control Study

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    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP; previously known as idiopathic haemorrhagic diathesis and commonly known as bleeding calf syndrome) is a novel haemorrhagic disease of young calves which has emerged in a number of European countries during recent years. Data were retrospectively collected during June to November 2010 for 56 case calves diagnosed with BNP between 17 March and 7 June of the same year. These were compared with 58 control calves randomly recruited from herds with no history of BNP. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that increased odds of a calf being a BNP case were associated with its dam having received PregSure® BVD (Pfizer Animal Health) vaccination prior to the birth of the calf (odds ratio (OR) 40.78, p<0.001) and its herd of origin being located in Scotland (OR 9.71, p = 0.006). Decreased odds of a calf being a BNP case were associated with the calf having been kept outside (OR 0.11, p = 0.006). The longer that a cattle herd had been established on the farm was also associated with decreased odds of a calf in that herd being a BNP case (OR 0.97, p = 0.011)

    Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Reproductive Hormone Levels in Females and Males: A Review of Human Trials

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    Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels in humans. Our results suggest that intermittent fasting decreases androgen markers (i.e., testosterone and the free androgen index (FAI)) while increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in premenopausal females with obesity. This effect was more likely to occur when food consumption was confined to earlier in the day (eating all food before 4 pm). In contrast, fasting did not have any effect on estrogen, gonadotropins, or prolactin levels in women. As for men, intermittent fasting reduced testosterone levels in lean, physically active, young males, but it did not affect SHBG concentrations. Interestingly, muscle mass and muscular strength were not negatively affected by these reductions in testosterone. In interpreting these findings, it is important to note that very few studies have been conducted on this topic. Thus, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions at present. From the limited data presented here, it is possible that intermittent fasting may decrease androgen markers in both genders. If this is the case, these results would have varied health implications. On the one hand, fasting may prove to be a valuable tool for treating hyperandrogenism in females with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by improving menstruation and fertility. On the other hand, fasting may be shown to decrease androgens among males, which could negatively affect metabolic health and libido. More research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings

    Data from: The application of an oxygen isotope aridity index to terrestrial paleoenvironmental reconstructions in Pleistocene North America

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    Geochemical tools, including the analysis of stable isotopes from fossil mammals, are often used to infer regional climatic and environmental differences. We have further developed an oxygen isotope aridity index and used oxygen (δ18O) isotope values and carbon (δ13C) isotope values to assess regional climatic differences between the southeastern and southwestern United States during the Pleistocene. Using data collected from previously published studies, we assigned taxa to evaporation-sensitivity categories by quantifying the frequency and magnitude of aridity index values (i.e., an average taxon δ18O value minus a site specific proboscidean δ18O value). Antilocapridae, Camelidae, Equidae, and Cervidae were identified as evaporation-sensitive families, meaning that a majority of their water comes from the food they eat, thus indicating that they are more likely to capture changing climatic conditions. Bovidae, Tayassuidae, and Tapiridae were identified as less sensitive families, possibly because of increased or more variable drinking behavior. While it is difficult to tease out individual influences on δ18O values in tooth enamel, the use of an aridity index will provide a more in-depth look at relative aridity in the fossil record. Greater aridity index values in the Southwest suggest a drier climate than in the Southeast during the Pleistocene, and δ13C values suggest that diet does not determine evaporation sensitivity. The combination of more-positive δ13C values and the lack of forest indicator taxa in the Southwest suggest that landscapes were more open than in the Southeast. Inferred higher aridity in the Southwest may indicate that aridity or seasonal aridity/precipitation, not temperature or pCO2, was a greater driver of C4 abundance during the Pleistocene. Collectively, these data suggest that regional climatic and environmental interpretations can be improved by using an aridity index and a more detailed understanding of mammalian paleobiology

    Concurrent task performance enhances low-level visuomotor learning

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    Visuomotor association learning involves learning to make a motor response to an arbitrary visual stimulus. This learning is essential for visual search and discrimination performance and is reliant upon a well-defined neural circuit in the brain that includes the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampal formation. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of attentional processes during such learning using dual-task interference. A motor, verbal, or perceptual concurrent task was performed during the learning/training block of a simple visual discrimination task. Contrary to expectation, the dual-task groups showed improved learning and learning-dependent performance compared with untrained control and non-dual-task trained groups. A second experiment revealed that this effect did not appear to be due to increased arousal level; the inclusion of alerting tones during learning did not result in facilitation. These findings suggest that the engagement of attention, but not arousal, during the acquisition of a visuomotor association can facilitate this learning and its expression
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